Friday, June 17, 2011

1800-1850

(My original has many pictures and illustrations.  Please excuse this installment until I am able to complete it.)
      1800         1800         1800
Century 1800 Preview: Since other Europeans have their nation-states, Germany (1870), Italy (1870) and the Jews begin their nations. The reaction against State absolutism, paradoxically sometimes for more state intervention, begins.  Gentile Socialism begins and along with that is the understanding of Capitalist Jews.  Revolutions happen in the 1830’s and especially in 1848 in which Karl Marx also writes his manifesto.  Christian futurism begins, which allows Christians to lessen their wordly involvement and wait for the End Times.  Bnai Brith, the Jewish Secret Masonic Lodge begins.  Jews infiltrate British nobility further through marriage.  The Tsar frees the serfs and the American Civil War takes place to install a more centralized National government with the 48ers involved.  Biblical criticism develops further.  Russian Khazar Jews migrate to the US.  Robber Barons monopolize industries.  German Youth begin to exalt freedoms through Nature.  Publishing comes under the domination of Jews. 
Societal Views about Jews:  Jews continue to work together to monopolize at every opportunity.  The common working-man is exploited by the Jews and the Gentiles try to throw off these Talmudic-Supremacist shackles in Russia, Poland, France and Austria.  There are 5 main arguments against the Jews:  1.religious, 2.economic, 3.political, 4.racial and 5.social. 1.The Jews hate Christians and the Talmud espouses Supremacy.  2.The Jews through  their Kahalic community can monopolize industries and force Gentiles out of business.  3.The Jews clamor for tribal advantages and claim anti-Semitism (coined later) against those who disagree.  4.The Jews, primarily unassimilated, have an alien culture which is different in costume and ethics.  Many immigrants are Jews arriving from Polish Russia.  5.The Jews push antichristian vices onto Gentiles.
****Pre-Industrial (pre-capitalism) Workers had a shorter workweek than today's Worker: “The laboring man will take his rest long in the morning; a good piece of the day is spent afore he come at his work; then he must have his breakfast, though he have not earned it at his accustomed hour, or else there is grudging and murmuring; when the clock smiteth, he will cast down his burden in the midway, and whatsoever he is in hand with, he will leave it as it is, though many times it is marred afore he come again; he may not lose his meat, what danger soever the work is in.  At noon he must have his sleeping time, then his bever in the afternoon, which spendeth a great part of the day; and when his hour cometh at night, at the first stroke of the clock he casteth down his tools, leaveth his work, in what need or case soever the work standeth.”   -James Pilkington, Bishop of Durham, ca. 1570.  Before capitalism, the tempo of life was slow, even leisurely; the pace of work relaxed.  Our ancestors may not have been rich, but they had an abundance of leisure.  When capitalism raised their incomes, it also took away their time.  A typical working day in the medieval period stretched from dawn to dusk (sixteen hours in summer and eight in winter), but, as the Bishop Pilkington has noted, work was intermittent - called to a halt for breakfast, lunch, the customary afternoon nap, and dinner.  Depending on time and place, there were also midmorning and midafternoon refreshment breaks.  These rest periods were the traditional rights of laborers, which they enjoyed even during peak harvest times.  During slack periods, which accounted for a large part of the year, adherence to regular working hours was not usual.  The medieval workday was not more than eight hours.  While working for a lord, one day's work was considered half a day, and if a serf worked an entire day, this was counted as two "days-works."  The medieval calendar was filled with holidays and holiday leisure time in medieval England took up probably about one-third of the year.  The ancien règime in France is reported to have guaranteed fifty-two Sundays, ninety rest days, and thirty-eight holidays. In Spain, travelers noted that holidays totaled five months per year.  There was also time off for family births, marriages, deaths, etc.
13th century - Adult male peasant, U.K.: 1620 hours -assumes 12 hr/day, 135 days per year for adult male
14th century - Casual laborer, U.K.: 1440 hours - 120 day/yr. Assumes 12 hr/day.
Middle ages - English worker: 2309 hours - working two-thirds of the year at 9.5 hr/day
1400-1600 - Farmer-miner, adult male, U.K.: 1980 hours - 180 days per year. Assumes 11-hour day
1840 - Av worker, U.K.: 3105-3588 hours -69-hr/wk. 45 to 52 wk/yr.
1850 - Av worker, U.S.: 3150-3650 hours -70-hr/wk.  45 to 52 wk/yr.
1987 -Average worker, U.S.: 1949 hours; 1988 -Manufacturing workers, U.K.: 1856 hours 
The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.  The manual labor and draft-animal–based economy moved towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.  Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways.  With the transition away from an agricultural-based economy and towards machine-based manufacturing came a great influx of population from the countryside and into the towns and cities, which swelled in population.  The critical manufacturing change was the production of interchangeable parts.  Lathes and other machine tools of the Industrial Revolution enabled (1) high precision, and (2) the mass reproduction of parts with that precision.  With the repeatable precision of the Industrial Revolution, interchangeable parts for guns or other products could be produced on a mass basis, which dramatically reduced the price of the product.  The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.  The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.
Country to city transformation: Cities grew from small towns to metropolis.  Locally grown food which was grown within or easily accessible to smaller towns or even segmented districts of a larger city began to be grown miles away and transported not by horses, but by trains and then by trucks.  People began to be alienated from Nature and the pacifying peace Nature brings.  London, one of the largest cities grew from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later.  Cities create even more tension in life, ripe for irrational violence and revolution.
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Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg Pius VII, #251 served from 3/14, 1800–8/20, 1823 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Temporarily expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movements was at its peak around 1800 to 1840. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.  It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and the natural sciences.  Its effect on politics was considerable and complex; while for much of the peak Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism, in the long term its effect on the growth of nationalism was probably more significant.
The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories.  It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu), and argued for a "natural" epistemology of human activities as conditioned by nature in the form of language and customary usage.  Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist ideal models to elevate a revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl, and industrialism, and it also attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar, and distant in modes more authentic than Rococo chinoiserie, harnessing the power of the imagination to envision and to escape.
Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which prized intuition and emotion over Enlightenment rationalism, the confines of the Industrial Revolution also had their influence on Romanticism, which was in part an escape from modern realities.  In the second half of the 19th century, "Realism" was offered as a polarized opposite to Romanticism.  Romanticism elevated the achievements of what it perceived as heroic individualists and artists, whose pioneering examples would elevate society.  It also legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of form in art.  There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas.
In the philosophy, art, and culture of German-speaking countries, German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.   The early German romantics tried to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, looking to the Middle Ages as a simpler, more integrated period.  Later German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the everyday world and the seemingly irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius.
Bildung (self-cultivation) The process of harmonization of mind, heart, selfhood and identity is achieved through personal transformation, which presents a challenge to the individual’s accepted beliefs.  Fulfillment is achieved through practical activity that promotes the development of one’s own individual talents and abilities which in turn lead to the development of one’s society.  In this way, Bildung does not simply accept the socio-political status quo, but rather it includes the ability to engage in a critique of one’s society, and to ultimately challenge the society to actualize its own highest ideals.
Bildungsbürgertum is a social class that initially emerged in mid-18th century Germany as an educated class of the bourgeoisie with an educational ideal based on idealistic values ​​and classical antiquity.  The Bildungsbürgertum could be described as the intellectual and economic upper bourgeoisie in contrast to the kleinbürgertum (Petite bourgeoisie).  The term itself was coined in the 1920s by the right wing and had an anti-bourgeois sentiment, which was perceived by the incompatible idea of being a 'genuine' intellectual and a bourgeois (Bürger).  Bildungsbürgertum distinguished themselves through education in the humanities, literature, and science, and involvement in the state affairs.  As a class of wealthy non-noble people, emerging first in the free imperial cites, they gained material wealth, social position and a better education, which was based on Humboldt's educational ideal.  The idea of Bildung (i.e. culture, education) was shaped by a belief in human perfectibility, specifically that an individual's potential could be realized through a classical education.  In the late absolutist management state there existed a need for a large number of educated officials to implement reforms.  To avoid a violent revolution, as in France, a national class was formed that had access to cultural education and thus to political positions.  As a result, many educational institutions were established, significantly more in Germany.  This new class was not primarily defined politically or economically, but mainly culturally.  It is often argued that Germany owes its reputation in technical expertise, scholarship and administration to the Bildungsbürgertum.
Nationalism at its origin was a liberal ideal, and as the Bildungsbürgertum were often represented in the liberal factions of society, they were often in the forefront of the quest for the founding of a sovereign nation state.  By the 1870s, the bulk of the Bildungsbürgertum had lost its forward-driving liberal orientation.  In the 18th century, academic occupations such as professors, gymnasium teachers, physicians, attorneys, judges, engineers and leading officials were strongly represented among the Bildungsbürger.
Highbrow carries a connotation of high culture.  The word draws its metonymy from the pseudoscience of phrenology.  Middlebrow, first appeared in 1925, consists of people who are hoping that some day they will get used to the stuff that they ought to like".   Lowbrow, relates to a person with little taste or intellectual interest.


http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQMNKvPq14KvEPB_nJGdnqI0EEVmaAIOVrHR-isksyLv9eDx0LGxg Novalis (Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg) (5/2, 1772 – 3/25, 1801), an author and philosopher of early German Romanticism.  The speech called Die Christenheit oder Europa (Christendom or Europe) was written in 1799, but was first published in 1826.  It is a poetical, cultural-historical speech with a focus on a political utopia with regard to the Middle Ages.  In this text Novalis tries to develop a new Europe which is based on a new poetical Christendom which shall lead to unity and freedom.  He got the inspiration for this text from Schleiermacher’s Über die Religion (1799).  The work was also a response to the French Enlightenment and Revolution, both of which Novalis saw as catastrophic and irreligious.  It anticipated, then, the growing German and Romantic theme of anti-Enlightenment visions of European spirituality and order.
1800 - 1810 One Tenth of the German-Jewish Population converted. 300,000 or Western Europe’s 400,000 Jews reside in Germany.
1800 “The Restoration of the Jews” by Rev. James Bicheno (d.1831), a Baptist minister.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTfkvMKeYZt7DSmA28qLfjBob0X9QH1KEIVW5ZMxUwljakxw5F3DQ http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS-CYUhBmVQKy9Id8iztLHIfi0Pc5r1Bj8QxIS3wdEVupTazTiC Thomas Rowlandson (7/13 1756 – 4/21 1827) was an English artist and caricaturist.  One of the great caricaturists, he drew numerous mocking scenes of Jews and the grotesqueries of their life in his day.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR35XAowFtRzkk503LRaTfJmsHhnJpjWZpZwkf5fdFkgBmy0dWH Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776).  Jefferson was one of the most influential Founding Fathers, known for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States.  Jefferson envisioned America as the force behind a great "Empire of Liberty" that would promote republicanism and counter the imperialism of the British Empire.
Thomas Jefferson- “Dispersed as the Jews are, they still form one nation, foreign to the land they live in.”  “Their ethics were not only imperfect, but often irreconcilable with the sound dictates of reason and morality, as they respect intercourse with those around us; and repulsive and anti-social, as respecting other nations.  They needed reformation, therefore, in an eminent degree.”
Thomas Jefferson, in a private letter, cited the works of others as his own opinion about Jewish ethics: "Ethics were so little studied among the Jews, that, in their whole compilation called the Talmud, there is only one treatise on moral subjects. Their books of morals chiefly consisted in a minute enumeration of duties ...  What a wretched depravity of sentiment and manners must have prevailed before such corrupt maxims could have attained credit.  It is impossible to collect from these writings a consistent series of moral Doctrine."
"Moses," said Jefferson elsewhere, ".... instilled into his people the most anti-social spirit towards other nations; the other [Jesus/the Christian] preaches philanthropy and universal charity and benevolence." [Even though Jefferson edited a New Testament leaving out ‘miracles’, he wanted the Bible to be taught in every public school.]  "Those who labor in the earth are the Chosen People of God, if ever he had a chosen people." (Notes on Virginia)
In 1779, Thomas Jefferson proposed a law that would mandate castration for gay men and mutilation of nose cartilage for gay women.  Jefferson was considered a liberal.  At the time, the most common penalty on the books was death.
“I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around the banks will deprive the people of all property - until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.” 
"All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent."
Jefferson advocated for a revolution every 20 years.  For Jefferson and his peers, “Revolution” meant restoration of rights.
Lately, Jefferson has been denigrated for having sex with his slave, Sally Hemings.  First, it may have been his brother who had that affair.  Second, Sally was half white and the her half-sister was Jefferson’s wife.
**** The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was Thomas Jefferson's effort to extract the doctrine of Jesus by removing sections of the New Testament containing supernatural aspects as well as perceived misinterpretations he believed had been added by the Four Evangelists.   Jefferson conceived the idea of writing his view of the "Christian System" concluding with the "principles of a pure deism" taught by Jesus, "omitting the question of his deity."  Jefferson accomplished a more limited goal in 1804 with “The Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth,” the predecessor to Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth.  He described it in a letter to John Adams dated 13 October 1813:  “ In extracting the pure principles which he taught, we should have to strip off the artificial vestments in which they have been muffled by priests, who have travestied them into various forms, as instruments of riches and power to themselves.  We must dismiss the Platonists and Plotinists, the Stagyrites and Gamalielites, the Eclectics, the Gnostics and Scholastics, their essences and emanations, their logos and demiurges, aeons and daemons, male and female, with a long train of … or, shall I say at once, of nonsense.  We must reduce our volume to the simple evangelists, select, even from them, the very words only of Jesus, paring off the amphibologisms into which they have been led, by forgetting often, or not understanding, what had fallen from him, by giving their own misconceptions as his dicta, and expressing unintelligibly for others what they had not understood themselves.  There will be found remaining the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man. I have performed this operation for my own use, by cutting verse by verse out of the printed book, and arranging the matter which is evidently his, and which is as easily distinguishable as diamonds in a dunghill.  The result is an octavo of forty-six pages, of pure and unsophisticated doctrines.”
The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth represents the fulfillment of his desire to produce a more carefully assembled edition. The Jefferson Bible begins with an account of Jesus’s birth without references to angels, genealogy, or prophecy. Miracles, references to the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, and Jesus' resurrection are also absent from the Jefferson Bible.  The work ends with the words: “Now, in the place where he was crucified, there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.  There laid they Jesus.  And rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.”  These words correspond to the ending of John 19 in the Bible.  Elsewhere Jefferson advocated the use of the Bible in all public schools.
Thomas Jefferson wrote on the front of his well-worn Bible: "I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus.  I have little doubt that our whole country will soon be rallied to the unity of our Creator." He was also the chairman of the American Bible Society, which he considered his highest and most important role.

****German Idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.  It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s, and was closely linked both with romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment.  The best-known thinkers in the movement, besides Kant, were Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, while Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, and Friedrich Schleiermacher were also major contributors.
"German idealism was initially introduced to the broader community of American literati through a Vermont intellectual, James Marsh.  Studying theology with Moses Stuart at Andover Seminary in the early 1820s, Marsh sought a Christian theology that would 'keep alive the heart in the head.' "Some American theologians and churchmen found value in German Idealism's theological concept of the infinite Absolute Ideal or Geist [Spirit].  It provided a religious alternative to the traditional Christian concept of the Deity.  "…[P]ost–Kantian idealism can certainly be viewed as a religious school of thought…."  The Absolute Ideal Weltgeist [World Spirit] was invoked by American ministers as they "turned to German idealism in the hope of finding comfort against English positivism and empiricism."  German idealism was a substitute for religion after the Civil War when "Americans were drawn to German idealism because of a 'loss of faith in traditional cosmic explanations.'"  "By the early 1870s, the infiltration of German idealism was so pronounced that Walt Whitman declared in his personal notes that 'Only Hegel is fit for America — is large enough and free enough.' "
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (3/20 1770 – 3/7 1843) was a major German lyric poet, commonly associated with the artistic movement known as Romanticism.  Hölderlin was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism, particularly his early association with and philosophical influence on his seminary roommates and fellow Swabians Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS_szFsaE7qws_bFzgvhfP1aB2MmXkXD4UvpVtFbaUL-rKNh_UH Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1/27 1775 – 8/20 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism between Fichte and Hegel.  His philosophy always focused on a few common themes, especially human freedom, the absolute, and the relationship between spirit and nature.  Schelling created Naturphilosophie, which is applied to the study of Nature, which attempted to comprehend nature in its totality and to outline its general theoretical structure, thus attempting to lay the foundations for the natural sciences.  In developing their theories, the German Naturphilosophen found their inspiration in the natural philosophy of the Ancient Greek Ionian philosophers.  Since the 1960s improved translations have existed, and scholars have had a better appreciation of the objectives of Naturphilosophie.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQWzOFiiYKA5UNwEQwFN1FC5O3NSt60z2vT_71h2-ewwJoqDHRl 1801 - 1825 Reign of Alexander I (Russia) -Though at first a liberal, he rapidly changed his perspective.  However, he envisioned the eventual emancipation for the Jews and their absorption into Russian "Christian" culture and life.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQJpaiHXK8gpJE_YJi3V3w9mlfFfND6Cyb0oImPULo611WEZQ9F The Lorelei (murmuring rock) is a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine near St. Goarshausen, Germany, which soars some 120 metres above the waterline.  It marks the narrowest part of the river between Switzerland and the North Sea.  A very strong current and rocks below the waterline have caused many boat accidents there.  Lorelei is also the name of a feminine water spirit, similar to mermaids or Rhine maidens, associated with this rock in popular folklore and in works of music, art and literature.  The rock and the murmur it creates have inspired various tales.  An old legend envisioned dwarves living in caves in the rock.  In 1801 German author Clemens Brentano composed his ballad which told the story of an enchanting female associated with the rock.  In the poem, the beautiful Lore Lay, betrayed by her sweetheart, is accused of bewitching men and causing their death.  Rather than sentence her to death, the bishop consigns her to a nunnery.  On the way thereto, accompanied by three knights, she comes to the Lorelei rock.  She asks permission to climb it and view the Rhine once again.  She does so and falls to her death; the rock still retained an echo of her name afterwards.  In 1824 Heinrich Heine described the titular female as a sort of siren who, sitting on the cliff above the Rhine and combing her golden hair, unwittingly distracted shipmen with her beauty and song, causing them to crash on the rocks.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_hX-LlSY1Gmk/TTUPL2f8G1I/AAAAAAAAAMY/nCTL1BgZVXI/s1600/Davy+Crockett.jpg http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTxRg2HvSV7uwemt92m129yMLNqbObz_Hyq-qflf8lTd5pPiZTK David Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was a celebrated folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician.  He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the Texas Revolution, and died at the Battle of the Alamo.  In “David Crockett: His Life and Adventures”, he is quoted as exclaiming: “O God , what a world of beauty hast Thou made for man!  And yet how poorly does he requite Thee for it!  He does not even repay Thee with gratitude.”
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTnfkvWcDwTW1X6KWZR8oVaVWxlwi-ndu42g6pc_p1CDZf2M3Y1 http://www.notablebiographies.com/images/uewb_02_img0098.jpg Daniel Boone (October 22, 1734 – September 26, 1820) was a pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States.  Boonesborough as a Baptist colony.  Daniel Boone TV Theme Song (Copyright 1964): 1)Daniel Boone was a man, Yes, a big man! With an eye like an eagle            And as tall as a mountain was he!  2)Daniel Boone was a man, Yes, a big man! He was brave, he was fearless And as tough as a mighty oak tree!  3)From the coonskin cap on the top of ol' Dan To the heel of his rawhide shoe; The rippin'est, roarin'est, fightin'est man The frontier ever knew!  4)Daniel Boone was a man, Yes, a big man! And he fought for America To make all Americans free!  What a Boone! What a doer! What a dream come-er-true-er was he!  5)Daniel Boone was a man! Yes, a big man! With a whoop and a holler he c'd mow down a forest of trees!   6)Daniel Boone was a man! Yes, a big man! If he frowned at a river In July all the water would freeze!  7)But a peaceable, pioneer fella was Dan When he smiled all the ice would thaw! The singin'est, laughin'est, happiest man The frontier ever saw!   8)Daniel Boone was a man! Yes, a big man! With a dream of a country that'd Always forever be free! What a Boone! What a do-er! What a dream-come-er-true-er was he!
Arch Goins and family, Melungeons from Graysville, Tennessee, c. 1920s  Melungeon is a term applied to one of a number of "tri-racial isolate" groups of the Southeastern US, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia, which includes portions of East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and East Kentucky. Tri-racial describes populations thought to be of mixed European, sub-Saharan African and Native American ancestry.  Melungeons were often referred to as of Portuguese or Native American origin.  There have been suggestions that Sephardic Jews fleeing Spain after 1492 became a major influence.  This suggests that many of our well-known Americans might have Jewish blood from this origin.  Yet, blood doesn’t confer the Supremacy of Judaism.

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS1SWwitKVD_rxx25GaDYeE6M00qhtUA1e7IIK95ASzhEt2tCWNXg Maria Edgeworth (1/1, 1767 – 5/22, 1849) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and children's writer.  She was one of the first realist writers in children's literature.  Harrington (1817) is the personal narrative of a recovering anti-Semite, a young man whose phobia of Jews is instilled in early childhood and who must unlearn his irrational prejudice when he falls in love with the daughter of a Spanish Jew.  The novel was written in response to a letter from a Jewish-American reader who complained about Edgeworth's stereotypically anti-Semitic portrayals of Jews in Castle Rackrent (1800), Belinda (1801), The Absentee (1812), and her Moral Tales (1801) for children. The novel is an autobiography of a "recovering anti-Semite".  Castle Rackrent, a short novel by Maria Edgeworth published in 1800, is often regarded as the first historical novel, the first regional novel in English, the first Anglo-Irish novel, the first Big House novel and the first saga novel. 
Earlier Maria Edgeworth - The process of vilifying the Jews and then guiltily meting them out a kind of justice is exemplified in her novels.  "Having impressed her readers with her ability to manipulate the stereotype of the Jew villain and having informed them some six times over that Jews were frauds, usurers, poisoners, perjurers, traitors, parasites on the national economy, threats to the body politic, and violators of young boys.”
Offizierskreuz.jpg The Legion of Honor is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte on 5/19, 1802.  The Order is the highest decoration in France and is divided into five degrees: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand Croix (Grand Cross).  The order's motto is ("Honor and Fatherland").



1803         1803         1803         1803
1803 Russian Archduke conquers the Khazar people who are further absorbed into this nation.
“Against the Jews” (1803) by K W F  Grattenauer, was a very popular work of its kind until the government banned any further publication.  Grattenauer is considered the "founder" of anti-Semitism.  In this work he defended the right of the miller Gottlieb Meschter who had killed in self defense the folk hero and criminal (Jew?) Johann Friedrich (Franz) Exner. "The Jew in general, the Jew everywhere and nowhere,"
18––.   Paulus Meyer, converted Jew, accused the Jews of Ritual Murder in his (Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, etc.). He had a libel action brought against him by the Jews he accused of being involved in a case of alleged ritual murder, and was sentenced to four months' arrest.
1803.   A converted ex-Rabbi wrote a book in the Moldavian language in 1803 which was published again in Greek in 1834 by Giovanni de Georgio under the title Ruin of the Hebraic Religion. This converted Rabbi called himself by the name Neophyte. Extracts from his book were quoted in Achille Laurent's Relation Historique des Affaires de Syrie depuis 1840 à 1842, a book described on p. 24 under the Damascus case. This extract gives very full information, confirms the murder, crucifixion and bleeding of Christians by Jews for Ritual purposes and the use of the blood for mixing with the Passover bread; and says that the practice is handed down by oral tradition and that nothing appears about it in writing in the Jewish religious books. Monniot in his Le Crime Ritual chez les Juifs copies long extracts from Laurent's quotations from Neophyte.

http://fistedaway.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/immanuel-kant.jpg Immanuel Kant (4/22, 1724 – 2/12, 1804) was a German philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg.  Kant was the last influential philosopher of modern Europe in the classic sequence of the theory of knowledge during the Enlightenment beginning with thinkers John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.  Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists and the rationalists.  The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired through experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge.  Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason.  Kant’s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists.  The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer each saw themselves as correcting and expanding the Kantian system, thus bringing about various forms of German idealism.  Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy, influencing both analytic and continental philosophy. 
In Kant’s Essay “Perpetual Peace” –Peace cannot be achieved through Empire because: linguistic and religious differences naturally separate states;  if states gave up their sovereignty they would no longer be states;  a world state would be inherently despotic.  Peace can only be attained by a federation of free nation states based on international law.  For individual states this means: a republican constitution, no state can acquire another state, abolish standing armies, no national debt, no interference with other states, no confidence damage such as spying or ‘black ops’.  Immanuel Kant ('The Jews still cannot claim any true genius, any truly great man.  All their talents and skills revolve around stratagems and low cunning ... They are a nation of swindlers.') Jews are a nation of usurers . . . outwitting the people amongst whom they find shelter. . . . They make the slogan 'let the buyer beware' their highest principle in dealing with us — Imanuel Kant.  "The euthanasia of Judaism can only be achieved by means of a pure, moral religion, and the abandonment of all old legal regulations."- Immanuel Kant,
1804 Alexander I of Russia (1801-1825) wanted to help assimilate the Jews and stop their anti-society activities especially the liquor traffic.  1804 Jewish Statute (Russia) -After two years of deliberation, Alexander I published legislation regarding the future of the Jews in Russia.  Based on the premise that the Jews (especially those absorbed from Poland) were undesirable elements, it was declared that efforts should be made to transform them into "productive" citizens.  On the one hand, Jews were allowed to attend university, open their own secular schools, and become involved in industry.  On the other hand, in the villages they were severely restricted with regard to occupations and land ownership.  He understood that the Jews (rather than the Polish nobles) exploited the peasants.  He forbad the employment of Christian servants by Jews.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR35XAowFtRzkk503LRaTfJmsHhnJpjWZpZwkf5fdFkgBmy0dWH Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
“The Polish Jews of the ghetto were filled with contempt for everything outside their world.  Their servile, craven exterior simply masked their real sense of the Talmudic superiority.  Beneath the helpless aspect lay a cynical, arrogant view of the non-Jew.”-Stephen Ascheim 1982.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT9QMD76S88ytra6oOfs7Zg1NWR_swYnf_S6dSEGA4OYnz4R7c3Tw Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (11/10, 1759 – 5/9, 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright.  Schiller accepts Manetho's claim that the Hebrews were expelled from Egypt because they had been spreading a disease: Schiller chastely calls it "national leprosy," but the Egyptians said it was venereal disease.  “The Jews form a State within a State.”
1805 June 29, BLACK SABBATH (Algiers) -Hundreds of Jews were killed in rioting following the assassination of Naftali Busnach.  Busnach, a shipping magnate, was the head of the Jewish community.  He had a monopoly on much of the trade and extensive influence on the treasury.  The Turkish garrison, jealous of his power, blamed him for the shortage of wheat and had him assassinated.
1805 “So many Stars in the Sky” German Folk Song 1805 –very rough Google translation:  So much star in the sky  to the fine gold blue tent;  as many sheep as there are in the green, green field; as many birds as fly as than fly there and back again: so many times you Hail! /  Shall I never see you because  Now I must eternally distant? Oh, that I can not understand O thou bitter parting last! I'd rather have died before I bought me one love, if I were not so sad book now /   Do not know if on this earth the bitter misery of the full  after much trouble and complaints I will see you again; what kind of waves, what flames beating up on me, Ah, how great is my distress! /  I will bear it with patience  I should think of only thee;  every morning I want to say: O my love, when comest to me? All evening I will speak if I break my eyes: O my love, remember me! /  Yes, I will not forget you never end my love, if I were under the sleep on your deathbed one I will lie in the churchyard as the infant in the cradle, that the lover does weigh a
12/2 1805 Battle of Austerlitz - Napoleon beats Russia and Austria.   All three Emperors were on the field of battle.
1805-08 “The Youth's Magic Horn” (referring to a magical device like the cornucopia) is a collection of German folk poems edited by von Arnim and Brentano.  The collection was an important source of idealized folklore in the Romantic nationalism of the nineteenth century.  Goethe, one of the most influential writers of the time, declared that Des Knaben Wunderhorn "has its place in every household".  Clemens Brentano (9/9, 1778 – 7/28, 1842) was a German poet and novelist.
1806 “The Simonini Letter” Abbe Barruel produced a document (which is said by Jews to be a forgery - produced by the French Political Police under Fouche).  Its objective was to influence Napoleon against the Jews.  The letter was ostensibly written by an army officer, J.B. Simonini.  After having congratulated Barruel on "unmasking" the Jacobins, which Simonini claimed were preparing the way for Antichrist, the letter went on to describe the so-called Jewish role in the entire "Jacobin Plot."

****1806 Napoleon "The Jews provided troops for my campaign in Poland, but they ought to reimburse me: I soon found that they are no good for anything but selling old clothes..."  "Legislating must be put in effect everywhere that the general well-being is in danger.  The government cannot look with indifference on the way a despicable nation takes possession of all the provinces of France.  The Jews are the master robbers of the modern age; they are the carrion birds of humanity... "They must be treated with political justice, not with civil justice.  They are surely not real citizens."  "The Jews have practiced usury since the time of Moses, and oppressed the other peoples.  Meanwhile, the Christians were only rarely usurers, falling into disgrace when they did so.  We ought to ban the Jews from commerce because they abuse it...  The evils of the Jews do not stem from individuals but from the fundamental nature of this people." (From Napoleon's Reflections, and from speeches before the Council of State on April 30 and May 7, 1806)
"Nothing more contemptible could be done than the reception of the Jews by you. I decided to improve the Jews.  But I do not want more of them in my kingdom.  Indeed, I have done all to prove my scorn of the most vile nation in the world." (Letter to his brother Jerome, King of Westphalia, March 6, 1808)  (1) Every big and small Jew is the peddling trade must renew his license every year.  (2) Checks and other obligations are only redeemable if the Jew can prove that he has obtained the money without cheating. (Ordinance of March 17, 1808. Napoleonic Code)
“Jews have to be conceived not as a sect, but as a nation. They are a nation within other nations...  The Jews are a nation capable of the most horrible crimes...  We must look at the Jews not only as a distinct race, but as aliens.  It would be a most awful humiliation to be ruled by this, the most base race on earth...  I wanted to make a nation of citizens out of them, but they are good for nothing but dealing in second hand goods.  I was compelled to proclaim laws against them for their usury and the peasants of Elace have rendered me their thanks.” Napoleon Bonaparte I – “France and the Jews”
“One cannot improve the character of the Jews by arguments. For them must be established special exclusive laws...”  “Since the times of Moses the Jews were oppressors or usurers.” “All the talent of Jews is concentrated on predatory acts...”  “They have a creed which blesses their thievings and misdeeds.”  “The Jews ought to be forbidden to make trade, as are forbidden the goldsmiths, who forge a lower kind of gold things, to continue their work...”  “The Jews are locusts or caterpillars which are devouring France.” - Sayings often repeated by Napoleon Bonaparte I.
"The Jews have practiced usury since the time of Moses, and oppressed the other peoples.  Meanwhile, the Christians were only rarely usurers, falling into disgrace when they did so.  We ought to ban the Jews from commerce because they abuse it...  The evils of the Jews do not stem from individuals but from the fundamental nature of this people."  Napoleon's Reflections and from speeches before the Council of State on April 30 and May 7, 1806.
Yet, The ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte proved to be an important event in European Jewish emancipation from old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited Jews' rights to property, worship, and careers.  And there are many Jews supporting modern day Napoleonic societies.
REGISTER OF THE LAWS OF THE REPUBLIC DECREE NO. 2001 prohibiting unauthorized blacks, mulattos and other people of color from entering the continental [European] territory of the Republic.  The 13th of Messidor, year 10 July 3, 1802 of the one and indivisible Republic THE CONSULS OF THE REPUBLIC, upon the recommendation of the Minister of Navy and Colonies; the CounciI of State concurring, DECREE: Art. I All foreigners are prohibited from bringing into the continental territory of the Republic, any black, mulatto, or other people of color, of either sex.  Art. II In the future every black, mulatto or other people of either sex, who are not gainfully employed, are equally prohibited from entering the continental territory of the Republic, on whatever cause or pretext, unless furnished with a special authorization from the magistrates of the colonies at their point of origin, or, if they do not come from the colonies, without the authorization of the Minister of Navy and Colonies.  Art. III All blacks or mulattos who arrive, after the publication of this decree, in the continental territory of the Republic, with out being furnished with the authorization designated in the preceding article, will be arrested and detained until their deportation.  Art. IV The Minister of Navy and Colonies is charged with enforcing the present decree, which will be inserted in the Register of the Laws. The First Consul (signed) BONAPARTE

http://cdn1.tabletmag.com/wp-content/files_mf/1261519461goldfarb_122109_380px.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRdWWex9vAFaNOHvXt6TNLsp9yeoN--q4vLdrrTa-Nz-H1yuoQ5cw  Jew Dandy **** In 1806, Napoleon convened an Assembly of Jewish Notables, who were asked twelve questions concentrating on the relationship between Jewish authorities and the national state. Some of these questions were: “Are Frenchmen considered brothers or strangers?  Do Jews born in France view France as their country? Are they bound to defend it?  Who appoints rabbis?  What police jurisdiction do rabbis exercise?  Are these rules regulated by law or are they customs?  Are there professions which Jews are forbidden to have?  Does the law forbid Jews to take usury from fellow Jews?   Does it forbid or allow taking usury from strangers? 
On February 9, 1807 Napoleon convened a French Sanhedrin consisting of forty-five rabbis and twenty-six laymen.
The questions Napoleon posed above must have been answered to his satisfaction because he established a national Jewish administration answerable to the state soon afterwards.  It was the first time that European Jews had the kind of codified civil rights they required.  These rights spread throughout Europe as Napoleon's influence spread.
The Court Jew had always inhabited the secret world of Princes and Politicians and the lowly world of the peasant but Napoleon, more than any other man, opened up the whole world to the Jew.
On March 17, 1808, Napoleon I created three decrees in a failed attempt to bring equality and to integrate the Jews into French society after the Jewish Emancipation of 1790-1791. Jewish moneylenders were accused of abusing rights given to them in their emancipation in 1791 under Louis XVI.  Napoleon issued an imperial decree in 1806 that suspended payment of debts owed to Jewish moneylenders for one year to warn against usury to the supposedly degenerate Jewish population and called a conference with Jewish leaders. The group he conferred with was dubbed the Great Sanhedrin and met in 1807.  The Great Sanhedrin condoned intermarriage between Frenchmen and Jews in order that the Jewish people might be absorbed in to France.  The first two decrees restored order to the informal Jewish communities that had survived the revolution.  The “third decree, presumed all Jews guilty of chicanery (the use of trickery to achieve a political, financial or legal purpose) unless proven innocent, and restricted Jewish commerce and money lending for a period of 10 years.”  As a consequence of the first three decrees, another decree was implemented on July 20, 1808.  This final decree declared that all Jews acquire a fixed family name to help the government and consistories supervise the Jews movements.  They were restricted in their choice of names and weren’t allowed to pick names from the Hebrew Bible or any town names.  The three decrees were set up to expire after 10 years and would only be continued if renewed after that period.  In 1818 Louis XVIII opted to not renew the decree and thus it ended.  Louis XVIII was thereafter known as the “liberator of Jews.”
Jacob Leib Talmon (6/14, 1916 – 6/16, 1980) was Professor of Modern History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.  He studied the genealogy of totalitarianism, arguing that political Messianism stemmed from the French Revolution, and stressed the similarities between Jacobinism and Stalinism.  He coined the terms Totalitarian Democracy and Political Messianism.  In his “Israel Among the Nations”, he says: “And then came the French Revolution and gave a most powerful impulse to the Judaisation of the modern world…”
http://fotos.fotoflexer.com/2a7a840cd7b7fd3038c268e9554edf1a.jpg

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wy****Anti-Semitism - Throughout history and especially after the Enlightenment, many educated men who were anti-Semitic did not say as much for the “Fear of the Jews” and their money, connections and anti-Christian conspiracies.  Much like today.  The poor and middle class have their own troubles and seek no extra knowledge.  Especially with a traditional Christian and ‘Germanic’ spirit of honesty and basic goodwill towards others, it is extremely hard to understand the Jewish mind towards Gentiles.  And like today, the more assimilated the Jew, the less overt, but possibly more covert are the hidden prejudices against the Gentiles.  And what form of anti-Semitism are we talking about?  Is it anti Talmud?  Is it anti Zionist?  Is it anti accident of birth?  A few of the names I have mentioned in this paper who have spoken negatively about Jews have been Jews.
Jews who spend entire careers, entire lives, dreaming up new angles of anti-Semitism have broken it down into a multitude of possibilities.  There is "religious anti-Semitism, Christian anti-Semitism, anti-Christian anti-Semitism, pagan anti-Semitism, economic anti-Semitism, social anti-Semitism, racial anti-Semitism, black anti-Semitism, pathological anti-Semitism, eternal anti-Semitism, political anti-Semitism, Jewish anti-Semitism, and literary anti-Semitism, to name some of the most common types." [GELBER]  The Jewish critics have analyzed authors who have numerous works, it’s hardly possible not to mention a Jew. Hence, no matter what a Gentile says about Jews -- good, bad, or indifferent, there is probably a Jew somewhere ready to condemn him.  ‘Methinks, they doth protest too much.’ 
Some analysts write of casual anti-Semitism.  Times change, meanings change, habits change. There was a time in the recent past when Americans could humorously call each others’ nationalities names.  People could call other races names with no real ill-will.  For instance all Chinese are such and such, but my Chinese neighbors are fine.  Novelists or other intelligentsia might have many Jewish friends, but still speak in stereotypes. Also some authors may write of Jews in various venues differently either in a negative or positive light.  Many of the novelists mentioned in this paper are not paragons of virtue. 
Besides dreaming up acts of anti-Semitism, there is a real reason to disdain and question Jews. A few quotes:
“No country in the world save, perhaps, the United States, is better adapted than Austria-Hungary to a study of the Jewish question.” - Henry Wickham Steed – “The Hapsburg Monarchy”, page 147.
“There is no sadder spectacle than that of the heaped up ruins in regions where the Jews are numerous.  There are parts of the country where the peasants have not even a piece of furniture between them, still less a plot of ground.  From their bed to their carts and their scythes, all belong to Jews.”  - F. Trocase – “Jewish Austria”.
“Anti-Semitism would not have such powerful roots, if serious reason for explaining and justifying it did not exist.  Who buys houses and furniture from people after having ruined them?  Who chases the peasant from his father's hearth?  Who encourages young people to dissipate?  Who contrives fraudulent bankruptcies?  Who robs the worker of the fruits of his labor?  Who has the knack of exploiting political passions in order to realize his own desires and satisfy his interests?  Who causes slumps?  Finally, who promotes disorder and anarchy, and goads the parties to tear one another to pieces by every possible means?  The Jew, always the Jew, whom one finds everywhere evil is to be done.” F. Trocase - “Jewish Austria”.
 “The mere fact of mentioning such (Jewish) matters brings every investigator face to face with the mystery of this decreed silence and falsification of the truth; and, should he succeed in completing his work, and in overcoming the difficulty of finding a publisher and distributing agents for it, he must run the risk of death by poisoning, a revolver shot or an ‘accident’ promoted by some mysterious hand.” -General Alexander Dmitrievic Necvolodov in “Nicholas II and the Jews”
What is the basis of Judaism? - A practical passion and greed for profit.  To what can we reduce his (the Jew's) religious worship?  -To extortion. What is his real God -Cash! - Karl Marx
Jews also attack themselves pawning the attacks off as gentile-produced.  This is all to ‘circle the wagons’ in their victimhood and solidarity! At about the year 2000, half of all Swastikas spray-painted on synagogues had been sprayed by their own members.

1806 Friedrich von Gentz (5/2, 1764 – 6/9, 1832) was a German publicist and statesman.  Gentz greeted the French Revolution first with enthusiasm; but after its developments he was converted to more conservative views by Burke's Essay on the French Revolution.  From this time forward he was against every advance of the Napoleonic power.  He wrote “Fragments on the Balance of Power in Europe”, London, 1806.  "Through Germany Europe has perished; through Germany it must rise again".  He realized that the dominance of France could only be broken by the union of Austria and Prussia, acting in concert with Great Britain.   The downfall of Prussia left Austria the sole hope of Germany and of Europe.  He was secretary to the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that followed, up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of men and affairs made him a power.

After the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (the First Reich), Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine (1806-15)
"The Restoration of the Jews. The crisis of all nations; to which is now prefixed, a brief history of the Jews, from their first dispersion, to the calling of their Grand Sanhedrim at Paris, October 6th, 1806, and an address on the present state of affairs, in Europe in general, and in this country in particular" by J Bicheno, M A  1807. –typical Christian Zionism misunderstandings.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR887eOAA71TW08jZ_PVoqOwbleP8iveQZKyXeohEUtKJsjTRuu 1807 “The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind” due to the dual meaning in the German word Geist.  It formed the basis of Hegel's later philosophy and marked a significant development in German idealism after Kant.  Focusing on topics in metaphysics, epistemology, physics, ethics, theory of knowledge, history, religion, perception, consciousness, and political philosophy, The Phenomenology is where Hegel develops his concepts of dialectic (including the Master-slave dialectic), absolute idealism, ethical life, and aufhebung.  The book had a profound effect in Western philosophy, and "has been praised and blamed for the development of existentialism, communism, fascism, death of God theology, and historicist nihilism."  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (8/27, 1770 – 11/14, 1831) was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism.  His historicist and idealist account of the total reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to continental philosophy. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, and psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy.  In particular, he developed a concept of mind or spirit that manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other.  Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence.  Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers (Bauer, Brandom, Feuerbach, Marx, Bradley, Dewey, Sartre, Küng, Kojève, Žižek) and his detractors (Schelling, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Peirce, Popper, Russell).  His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism", "Spirit", negativity, sublation, the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.  ‘Dialectic‘ is a Greek term, originally associated with the philosopher Socrates' method of argument through dialogue and conversation.  Hegelian dialectic, named after the German philosopher Hegel, refers to an interpretive method in which the contradiction between a thesis and its antithesis is resolved through synthesis.
The state is generally incompatible with the Jewish principle...  Jewish history has impressive outlines, as a whole, only it is adulterated by the religious exclusion of all other peoples (the extermination of the Canaanites must legitimately be considered here), by a general lack of civilization and by the superstition that grows out of the idea of the high value of national individuality. (Philosophie der Geschichte)  The Jewish multitude was bound to wreck his [Jesus'] attempt to give them the consciousness of something divine, for faith in something divine, something great, cannot make its home in a dunghill. Jewish soul, the whole of life – none in a withering leaf...  The fate of the Jewish people is the fate of Macbeth, who stepped out of nature itself, clung to alien Beings [the witches] and so in their service had to trample and slay everything holy in human nature, had at last to be forsaken by his gods (since these were objects and he their slave) and be dashed to pieces on his faith itself. (Early Theological Writings)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's closet drama Faust (1808).  Faust in search of greater powers, made an agreement with Mephistopheles according to which he would sell his soul to the Devil in return of 24 years of knowledge, magical power, and unlimited pleasure.  In the end Faust regretted the agreement, understanding the illusory nature of that which he had apparently gained, and he was taken off to Hell.
1808 “Soon I am Neckar grass” German Folk Song 1808 –very rough Google translation:  Soon I am Neckar grass I soon grass on the Rhine I soon got a Schatzel Soon I am alone. /  What helps me the grazing if the crescent is not schneid't, what helps me the Schatzel, if it does not stay with me. /  And am I supposed to graze on the Neckar, the Rhine, so 'I throw my beautiful Goldringlein inside. /  It fließet in the Neckar, fließet it in the Rhine, to swim down into the deep sea 'no. /  And it floats, the little ring it eats a fish the fish will come  to be the king's table. /  The king asked TY Who's Ringlein be? as perpetrators say my treasure: the little ring g'hört mine. /  My Schatzel TY jump  bergaus and bergein, TY bring me wied'rum the Goldringlein fine. /  Can graze on the Neckar, can graze on the Rhine, I always just throw you your little ring inside.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Philipp_Otto_Runge_005.jpg/220px-Philipp_Otto_Runge_005.jpg Philipp Otto Runge (7/23, 1777 – 12/2, 1810) was a Romantic German painter and draughtsman. He made a late start to his career and died young, nonetheless he is considered among the best German Romantic painters.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Philipp_Otto_Runge_003.jpg/220px-Philipp_Otto_Runge_003.jpg The Hülsenbeck children, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Philipp_Otto_Runge_001.jpg/170px-Philipp_Otto_Runge_001.jpg ("Morning", 1808) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Runge_Farbenkugel.jpg/220px-Runge_Farbenkugel.jpg

http://teapartycheer.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/James-Madison-Jr.jpg James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was a political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.  He was the principal author of the US Constitution, and is often called the "Father of the Constitution".  In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, the most influential commentary on the Constitution.  He was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".  As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rights from the tyranny of the majority.    "We have staked the whole future of our new nation not upon the power of government; far from it.  We have staked the future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments."
http://userserve-ak.last.fm/serve/_/132969/Franz+Joseph+Haydn.jpg Franz Joseph Haydn (3/31, 1732 – 5/31, 1809) was a Classical composers. He is often called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet" because of his important contributions to these genres.  He was also instrumental in the development of the piano trio and in the evolution of sonata form.   He was also a close friend of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and a teacher of Ludwig van Beethoven.  Haydn’s first Singspiel, Der krumme Teufel (The Crooked Devil, no music survives) presents the character Asmodeus, a hobbled demon walking on crutches, as a possible Jewish stereotype.  He also created a a mass putatively aimed at Jews undergoing conversion to Catholicism.   The character Sempronio, the apothecary in Lo Speziale, is meant to embody a stereotype of a Jew - high voice, his lechery to the point of near incest, his miserliness and greed, his appearance, his music, and his ineptitude in his profession.
Church's Ministry Among Jewish People (CMJ) (formerly the London Jews' Society or the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews) is an Anglican missionary society founded in 1809.  The society began when leading evangelicals, including members of the influential Clapham Sect such as William Wilberforce, and Charles Simeon, decided that there was an unmet need to promote Christianity among the Jews.  The original agenda of the society was: Declaring the Messiahship of Jesus to the Jew first and also to the non-Jew.  Endeavoring to teach the Church its Jewish roots.  Encouraging the physical restoration of the Jewish people to Eretz Israel - the Land of Israel.  Encouraging the Hebrew Christian/Messianic Jewish movement.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/30/Uhland.jpg/220px-Uhland.jpg Johann Ludwig Uhland (4/26, 1787 – 11/13, 1862), was a German poet, philologist and literary historian.  One of his best known poems is "I had a Comrade"(1809),which is an integral part of military funerals.:  I once had a comrade,/ you won't find a better one./ The drum was rolling for battle,/ he was marching by my side/ in the same pace and stride.;  A bullet flew towards us/ meant for you or for me?/ It did tear him away,/ he lies at my feet/ like he was a part of me.; He wants to reach his hand to me,/ while I'm just reloading my gun./ "Can't give you my hand for now,/ you rest in eternal life/ My good comrade!"


1810         1810         1810         1810
Robert Southey (8/12 1774 – 3/21 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 to his death in 1843.  “Some of the lowest order let their beards grow, and wear a sort of black tunic with a girdle; the chief ostensible trade of this class is in old clothes, but they deal also in stolen goods, and not infrequently in coining.  A race of Hebrew lads who infest you in the streets with oranges and red slippers, or tempt school-boys to dip in a bag for gingerbread nuts, are the great agents in uttering base silver; when it is worn too bare to circulate any longer, they buy it up at a low price, whiten the brass again and send it abroad.  You meet Jew pedlars every where, traveling with boxes of haberdashery at their backs, cuckoo clocks, sealing wax, quills, weather glasses, green spectacles, clumsy figures in plaister of Paris, which you see over the chimney of an alehouse parlour in the country, or miserable prints of the king and queen. . . But when they meet with a likely chapman, they produce others of the most obscene and mischievous kind.  Any thing for money, in contempt of their own law as well as of the law of the country... England has been called the hell of horses, the purgatory of servants and the paradise of women; it may be added that it is the heaven of the Jews - alas, they have no other heaven to expect!” (Letters From England)
1810: Sir Francis Baring and Abraham Goldsmid die.  This leaves Nathan Mayer Rothschild as the remaining major banker in England.
Salomon Mayer Rothschild goes to Vienna, Austria and sets up the bank, M. von Rothschild und Söhne.
~1810 The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans who protested – often by destroying mechanized looms – against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt were leaving them without work and changing their way of life.  The movement was named after General Ned Ludd or King Ludd, a mythical figure who, like Robin Hood, was reputed to live in Sherwood Forest.  He was named after Ned Ludd who broke two stocking frames in a fit of rage 1779.
**A Cooperative (Co-op) is an autonomous association of persons who voluntarily cooperate for their mutual social, economic, and cultural benefit.  Types of cooperatives have been Retailers', Worker, Volunteer, Social, Consumers', Business and employment, Housing, Utility,  Agricultural, Credit unions and cooperative banking.  Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities.  Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context.  Robert Owen (1771 - 1858) was a social reformer and a pioneer of the cooperative movement.  In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers.  Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans, emigration and education.  In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen introduce better labor standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSS683G7IKVn0lZezQQkuI14XoeOzy4pL0WPZn7DdH02zfTSp-A 1810 Oktoberfest is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October.  It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year.  It was begun to honor the marriage of Prince Ludwig and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Congress rejected renewal of the National Bank charter and the bank was closed on March 4, 1811 which ignited Rothschild's wrath; he had controlling stock. He declared "Either the application for renewal of the Charter is granted, or the United States will find itself in a most disastrous war."  He then ordered British troops to "teach these impudent Americans a lesson.  Bring them back to Colonial status."  This brought on the War of 1812, our second war with England, which facilitated the re-chartering of the Bank of the United States.  The war raised our national debt from $45 million to $127 million."  When Nathan Rothschild asked the British Parliament to declare war, the Prime Minister objected.  He was assassinated by "a lone gunman" on May 11, 1812.  Parliament declared war on June 18, 1812. British troops burned the White House and other government buildings including the one that housed the ratification papers for the U.S. constitution.  President Madison, a perceptive politician, proposed the establishment of a second central bank on December 5, 1815 which was created by Congress on January 7, 1817.  Nicholas Biddle, a Nathan Rothschild protégé, became the bank's president in 1822.
War of 1812: June 1812 The US declare war on Britain from impressing American sailors into the British Navy (which the British had just repealed!).  The US declared War for Recognition of their Sovereignty and Independence.  1813 The Americans burn the public buildings in York (Toronto) Canada.  The Canadians repel the Americans.  1814 The British burn Washington DC.  1815 Andrew Jackson repels British invasion force at New Orleans.
1812: Backed by Rothschild money, the British declare war on the US.  The Rothschilds’ plan was to cause the US to build up such a debt that they would have to surrender to the Rothschilds’ Central Bank.
Mayer Amschel Rothschild dies.  In his will he lays out specific laws that the House of Rothschild were to follow: all key positions were only to be held by male family members; the family was to intermarry with first and second cousins to preserve the family fortune.
Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild goes to Paris, France to set up the bank, de Rothschild Frères.
1812 Previous 13th amendment forbidding lawyers in Congress is lost and forgotten.  “Titles of Nobility” Theory is that American lawyers are directly descended from British lawyers who hold Titles of Nobility.  There were many Jewish double spies.
"The Jews form a state, and, obeying their own laws, they evade those of their host country.  The Jews always considered an oath regarding a Christian not binding.  During the Campaign of 1812 the Jews were spies, they were paid by both sides, they betrayed both sides.  It is seldom that the police investigate a robbery in which a Jew is not found either to be an accompolice or a receiver." (Count Helmuth von Molthke, Prussian General)
“The American Captive” (1812) James Ellison, a widely-produced play, has a Jewish character who befriends an American for money and cheats a princess out of what is rightfully hers.
 James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was a political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817)
Christoph Martin Wieland (9/5, 1733 – 1/20, 1813) was a German Jew poet and writer.  In Don Sylvia von Rosalva (1764), a romance in imitation of Don Quixote, he held up to ridicule his earlier faith and in the Comische Erzählungen (1765) he gave his extravagant imagination only too free a rein.  Wieland's poetic masterpiece, the romantic epic of Oberon (1780).  He translated and popularized Greek studies.  Wieland influenced by the French fairy-tale vogue of the 18th century, published a collection of tales entitled Dschinnistan (1786–1789), which included three original tales, ('The Philosopher's Stone'), 'Timander und Melissa', and ('The Druid or the Salamander and the Painted Pillar').  Typical of all these tales is the triumph of rationalism over mysticism.
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (11/12, 1755 – 6/28, 1813) was a Prussian general, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings, his reforms of the Prussian army, and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars.  Frederick William III erected a statue in memory of him, by Christian Daniel Rauch, in Berlin. Scharnhorst was buried at the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin.  Several German navy ships, including the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst, the World War II battleship Scharnhorst, and a post-war frigate, as well as a district of the city of Dortmund and a school in the city of Hildesheim, were named after him.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/VomStein_%28Gem%C3%A4lde_Rincklake%29.jpg/250px-VomStein_%28Gem%C3%A4lde_Rincklake%29.jpg Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr  vom und zum Stein (10/25, 1757 – 6/29, 1831), commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany.  He promoted the abolition of serfdom, with indemnification to territorial lords; subjection of the nobles to manorial imposts; and the establishment of a modern municipal system.   After the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, Stein became head of the council for the administration of the re-conquered German countries.

http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/gutenb/autoren/bilder/muellr-a.jpg Adam Heinrich Müller (6/30, 1779 – 1/17, 1829) was a German publicist, literary critic, political economist, theorist of the state and forerunner of economic romanticism.  In his work, (On the necessity of a comprehensive theological foundation for political science, 1820), Müller rejects the distinction between constitutional and civil law (common law), which rests entirely on the idea of the state's omnipotence.  His ideal is medieval feudalism, on which the reorganization of modern political institutions should be modeled.  His position in political economy is defined by his strong opposition to Adam Smith's system of materialistic-liberal (so-called classical) political economy, or the so-called industry system.  He censures Smith as presenting a one-sidedly material and individualistic conception of society, and as being too exclusively English in his views.  Müller is thus also an adversary of free trade.  In contrast with the economical individualism of Adam Smith, he emphasizes the ethical element in national economy, the duty of the state toward the individual, and the religious basis which is also necessary in this field.  Some of his ideas, freed from much of their alloy, are reproduced in the writings of the historical school of German economists.  The reactionary and feudalistic thought in Müller's writings, which agreed so little with the spirit of the times, prevented his political ideas from exerting a more notable and lasting influence on his age, while their religious character prevented them from being justly appreciated. However, Müller's teachings had long-term effects in that they were taken up again by 20th century theorists of corporatism and the corporate state, for example Othmar Spann.  Therefore it is easy to understand that the Jew, even if assimilated into German society, can never become part of this living, organic entity that is the Germans.  Adam Heinrich Muller expresses this as follows:  "It is as if one does not need to be awarded nationality status in order to be accepted into the national society, but rather the capricious formulation of a decision: as if there is no need, in order to enter the family of a large nation - a grouping that was established during thousands of years, by fate, religion, tradition, law and custom, a heritage which cannot be measures, which has been acquired through struggle and effort - other than by opening the gates which lead to these holy places."
Friedrich Schlosser (11/17, 1776-9/23, 1861) was a German historian and teacher whose universal histories stressing a moralistic and judgmental approach to the past were the most popular historical works in Germany.
1814 Marquis de Sade, Donatien Alphonse François, (6/2 1740 – 12/2 1814) was a French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer famous for his libertine sexuality and lifestyle.  His works include novels, short stories, plays, dialogues, and political tracts; in his lifetime some were published under his own name, while others appeared anonymously.  He is best known for his erotic works, which combined philosophical discourse with pornography, depicting sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence, criminality, and blasphemy against the Catholic Church.  He was a proponent of extreme freedom, unrestrained by morality, religion, or law.  Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and in an insane asylum for about 32 years of his life.  During the French Revolution he was an elected delegate to the National Convention. (This possibly makes him a Jew and a Jacobian.)  Many of his works were written in prison.
 Thomas Rowlandson (7/13, 1756 – 4/21, 1827) was an English artist and caricaturist.
6224291340488238927.JPG A poor Gentile working for a rich Jew (Tho. Rowlandson)
4823136509956174267.JPG “Pickled Pork” (early 1800’s?)

**The Conclusion of Napoleon’s Empire Building:
Image  (People's Battle Monument)at Leipzig, built in 1913 to honor the Battle of Leipzig 1813.  The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations, on 10/16–19, 1813, was fought by the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden against the French army of Napoleon at Leipzig, Saxony.  Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine.  The battle marked the culmination of the fall campaign of 1813 during the German campaign and involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.  Defeated, Napoleon was compelled to return to France while the Allies hurried to keep their momentum, invading France early the next year.  Napoleon was forced to abdicate, and was exiled to Elba that spring.
In January 1814, Nathan Rothschild had received a lucrative contract with the British government to supply coinage to pay the British troops who were fighting in the European balance-of-power playoff, the Napoleonic War and both sides were financed by the House of Rothschild.  From the family's huge network of cash-carrying couriers, Nathan received `prior knowledge' about the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo.  He manipulated "consuls" in the London Stock Exchange to create panic and frenzied selling.  He increased his fortune by 6500 times.  He seized control the Bank of England and England's economy.  Three years later he orchestrated a cash-coup in France.  There would be many staged cash-coups, world-wide, over the years. The Rothschilds withdrew from the limelight and altered their procedures for fleecing individuals and countries. They now "operate through and behind a wide variety of fronts."
1815   Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium.  Nathan Rothschild receives early news of Napoleon’s defeat, and manipulates the English government bond market, acquiring English bonds at heavily discounted prices.  This gives Rothschild major financial influence of the English government.  Following Napoleon's final defeat in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy was re-established, but with new constitutional limitations.  The Bourbon Restoration is the name given to the restored Bourbon Kingdom of France which existed from 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830, with the interval of the "Hundred Days" from Napoleon I's return from Elba to the Battle of Waterloo in 1814–15. The regime was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the ancien régime, which was absolute.  The period was characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics.
“The league against Napoleon I, which was instrumental in shattering his dream of universal empire, was a Jewish organization.” Walter Hurt – “The Truth about the Jews”, 1922
Louis-Philippe I (10/6, 1773 – 8/26, 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. He was the last king to rule France, although Napoleon III, styled as an emperor, would serve as its last monarch.  With the rule of Louis-Philippe, the reign of the Jew began.  Under the Restoration one could approximately compute the number of Jews.  Every Jew was obliged to have his name registered. In 1830 Rothschild succeeded in having this law annulled.  Toussenel said: "There was no longer a reigning power in France, for the Jews kept it enslaved."
The short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second Empire.  Louis-Napoléon was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQFG47wZOyxcgOiP7hX2ngV9A4e1BYMXrFmx_m_9oosEDb-uRSYbA 1815: The five Rothschild brothers work to supply gold to both Wellington's army (through Nathan in England) and Napoleon's army (through Jacob in France), and begin their policy of funding both sides in wars.  The Rothschilds love wars because they are massive generators of risk free debt guaranteed by the host governments. The Rothschild bank couriers were the only merchants allowed to pass through the English and French blockades.
1815, Nathan Mayer Rothschild says, "I care not what puppet is placed upon the throne of England to rule the Empire on which the sun never sets.  The man who controls Britain's money supply controls the British Empire, and I control the British money supply."  He would go onto brag that in the 17 years he had been in England he had increased the £20,000 stake given to him by his father, 2500 times to £50 million.  The Rothschilds also use their control of the Bank of England to replace the method of shipping gold from country to country and instead used their five banks spread across Europe to set up a system of paper debits and credits, the banking system of today.

****Congress of Vienna creates a balance of power for Europe.  1815
Strange sight this Congress (of Vienna - 1815) destined to unite /All that's incongruous, all that's opposite. /I speak not of the sovereigns, they're alike, /A common coin as ever mint could strike; /But those who sway the puppets, pull the strings, /Have more of motley than their heavy kings. /Jews, authors, generals, charlatans, combine, /While Europe wonders at the vast design.  –Lord Byron
Jesuits - As the Napoleonic Wars were approaching their end in 1814, the old political order of Europe was to a considerable extent restored at the Congress of Vienna after years of fighting and revolution, during which the Church had been persecuted as an agent of the old order and abused under the rule of Napoleon.  With the political climate of Europe changed, more stable and the powerful monarchs who had called for the suppression of the Society no longer in power, Pope Pius VII issued an order restoring the Society of Jesus in the Catholic countries of Europe.
The reason for this Congress of Vienna, was for the Rothschilds to create a form of world government, to give them complete political control over much of the civilized world.  Many of the European governments were in debt to the Rothschilds, so they figured they could use that as a bargaining tool.   However the Tsar Alexander I of Russia, who had not succumbed to a Rothschild central bank, would not go along with the plan, so the Rothschild world government plan failed. 102 years later Rothschild funded Bolsheviks to take down the Tsar’s family.
http://www.emersonkent.com/images/klemens_von_metternich.jpg Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (5/15, 1773 – 6/11, 1859) was a German-Austrian statesman. He was one of the most important diplomats of his era.  He was a major figure in the negotiations before and during the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paragon of foreign-policy management and a major figure in the development of diplomatic praxis. He was the archetypal practitioner of diplomatic realism, being deeply rooted in the postulates of the balance of power.
Metternich’s German Confederation (1815-66)
1815 The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries.  It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia.  Britain approved of it because London felt that there was need for a stable, peaceful power in central Europe that could discourage aggressive moves by France or Russia.  It collapsed due to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria (known as German dualism), warfare, the 1848 revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise.  In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state.  Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the confederation briefly dissolved but was re-established in 1850.  The dispute between the two dominant member states of the confederation, Austria and Prussia, over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favor of Prussia after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, and the collapse of the confederation.  This resulted in the creation of the North German Confederation, with a number of south German states remaining independent, although allied first with Austria (until 1867) and subsequently with Prussia (until 1871), after which they became a part of the new German state.

****The Prussian system of higher education and the cultural flowering which characterized Prussia in the era of regeneration following upon the Napoleonic wars all left a distinct impression upon America.  The list of American scholars and writers- George Tichnor, Edward Everett, Joseph Cogswell, George Bancroft, John Lothrop Motley, Henry E. Dwight, Washington Irving, Henry W. Longfellow, and James F. Cooper, to mention only some- who went to Prussia to secure inspiration for their life's work is a most impressive one.  By most Americans, "whether seen in their newly united nation or in this country, the Germans were generally regarded as methodical and energetic people," indeed as "models of progress," while ""in their devotion to music, education, science, and technology they aroused the admiration and emulation of Americans."
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQHCKNgKKZ1_tgLRlXckqUQRi_Z0uLftxKJshlzIk203ksCoOTJ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (2/27, 1807 – 3/24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.  He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets.  Longfellow wrote predominantly lyric poems, known for their musicality and often presenting stories of mythology and legend.  He became the most popular American poet of his day and also had success overseas. He has been criticized, however, for imitating European styles and writing specifically for the masses.  He began his tour of Europe in May 1826, traveled to France, Spain, Italy, Germany, back to France, then England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829.  While overseas, he learned French, Spanish, Portuguese, and German, mostly without formal instruction.  In Madrid, he spent time with Washington Irving and was particularly impressed by the author's work ethic.  In December 1834, Longfellow again traveled to Europe and  studied German as well as Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, and Icelandic. 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Photograph_of_James_fenimore_Cooper_by_Mathew_Brady.jpg/220px-Photograph_of_James_fenimore_Cooper_by_Mathew_Brady.jpg James Fenimore Cooper (9/15, 1789 – 9/14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer.  His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature.  Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church and in his later years contributed generously to it.  He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales.  Beginning in his youth Cooper was a devoted follower of the Episcopal Church where his religious convictions deepened throughout his life.  Gleanings in Europe: The Rhine (1836)  In 1978, Barton Levi St. Armand of Brown University wrote article “Harvey Birch as the Wandering Jew: Literary Calvinism in James Fenimore Cooper’s The Spy”.  The Lake Gun (1851) by James Fenimore Cooper begins with: “The Seneca is remarkable for its "Wandering Jew," and the "Lake Gun." The first is a tree so balanced that when its roots are clear of the bottom it floats with its broken and pointed trunk a few feet above the surface of the water, driving before the winds, or following in the course of the currents.  At times, the "Wandering Jew" is seen off Jefferson, near the head of this beautiful sheet; and next it will appear anchored, as it might be, in the shallow water near the outlet.”
Travels in the North of Germany (1829) by Henry Edwin Dwight (4/19, 1797 – 8/11, 1832) was an American educator and travel writer.  Henry Edwin Dwight was the eighth son of the president of Yale University Timothy Dwight IV.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/John_Lothrop_Motley_-_Brady-Handy.jpg/200px-John_Lothrop_Motley_-_Brady-Handy.jpg John Lothrop Motley (4/15, 1814 -5/29, 1877) was an American historian and diplomat.  His education included training in the German language and literature, and he went to Germany to complete these studies at Göttingen, during 1832–1833, during which time he became a lifelong friend of Otto von Bismarck.  After this, Motley and Bismarck went study civil law together at Frederick William University, Berlin. After a period of European travel he returned in 1834 to America, where he continued his legal studies.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/George_Ticknor.jpg George Ticknor (8/1, 1791 – 1/26, 1871) was an American academician and Hispanist, specializing in the subject areas of languages and literature. He is known for his scholarly work on the history and criticism of Spanish literature.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Edward_Everett_daguerreotype.png/220px-Edward_Everett_daguerreotype.png Edward Everett (4/11, 1794 – 1/15, 1865) was an American politician and educator from Massachusetts.  Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State.  He also taught at Harvard University and served as president of Harvard.  Everett spent two years in Europe, studying and traveling on full salary.  He spent much of this time at the University of Göttingen in Germany, where he became the first American to receive a German Ph.D. in Prussia.  He learned French, German, and Italian, and studied Roman law, archaeology, and Greek art.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR1QvA1l1M7jFx3LXuSq0ruIcdMjm3dB6mTS-7XH3jBKb5Ru9BmoZEKnghF Joseph Green Cogswell (9/27, 1786 – 11/26, 1871) was a librarian, bibliographer and an innovative educator.  In 1816 he went to Europe, and, in company with George Ticknor, spent two years at the University of Göttingen, where he paid special attention to the methods and principles of instruction
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/George_Bancroft_by_Plumbe,_1846.jpg/220px-George_Bancroft_by_Plumbe,_1846.jpg  George Bancroft (10/3, 1800 – 1/17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman.  During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845.  Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent.  At age 17, he graduated from Harvard and went to study in Germany.  Abroad, he studied at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Berlin. At Göttingen he studied Plato with Arnold Heeren; history with Heeren and Gottlieb Jakob Planck; Arabic, Hebrew, New Testament Greek and scripture interpretation with Albert Eichhorn; natural science with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach; German literature with Georg Friedrich Benecke; French and Italian literature with Artaud and Bunsen; and classics with Georg Ludolf Dissen. In 1820, he received his doctorate from the University of Göttingen.
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****American Opinion of Germany and Germans in the Nineteenth Century - The dark image of a sinister, aggressive, predatory, and militarily regimented Germany only became prevalent in the 20th century.  
http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/maitland/mait16.gif Frederic William Maitland (5/28, 1850 – 12/19, 1906) was an English jurist and historian, generally regarded as the modern father of English legal history.  Maitland described the once characteristic attitude toward the Germans: ".. . it was usual and plausible to paint the German as an unpractical, dreamy, sentimental being, looking out with mild blue eyes into a cloud of music and metaphysics and tobacco smoke."
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Madame_de_Sta%C3%ABl.jpg/220px-Madame_de_Sta%C3%ABl.jpg Madame de Staël, (Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein) (4/22, 1766 – 7/14, 1817), was a French-speaking Swiss author.  She influenced literary tastes in Europe.  She was determined to publish (Germany) 1810/1813 in Paris.  Under French censorship, she wrote to the emperor a provoking letter.  Napoleon's reply to her letter was the condemnation of the whole edition of her book (ten thousand copies) as not French, and her own exile from the country.  StaeI's Germans were a nation of "poets and thinkers," a race of kindly, impractical, other..worldly dreamers without national prejudices and, strangely, in the light of later propaganda, "disinclined to war." 
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A gathering of the Burschenschaften, a secretive nationalist group with far-right tendencies German Burschenschaften (student fraternities).  Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas.  The very first one was founded on 6/12, 1815 inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas. Its purpose was to break down society lines and to destroy rivalry in the student body, to improve student life and increase patriotism.  At first, a significant component of its membership were students who had taken part in the German wars of liberation against the Napoleonic occupation of Germany.  Its motto was “honor, freedom, fatherland”, and the original colors were red-black-red with a golden oak leaves cluster, which might be based on the uniform of the Lützow Free Corps, being a corps of volunteer soldiers during the wars of liberation.  These colors were based on the Holy Roman Empire's national colors black-red-gold, although the reason for the colors was as well a practical one.  Even today, these colors are worn by many Burschenschaften.  In 1935/36, all Burschenschaften were dissolved by the Nazi government or transformed.  Both some Nazis (e.g. Ernst Kaltenbrunner) and Nazi opponents (Karl Sack, Hermann Kaiser) were members of Burschenschaften.  Theodor Herzl, an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism, was also a member of a Burschenschaft.  In West Germany most Burschenschaften were refounded in the 1950s.  In the 1970s and 1980s, the Burschenschaften, as many other student fraternities, underwent a crisis: a lack of new members and strong attacks by the leftist student community.  In the 1990s many Burschenschaften that had left Eastern Germany in the 1940s and 1950s returned to their traditional home universities in the East.  Roughly 160 Burschenschaften still exist today.  From those opposed to Burschenschaften, it is often claimed that members of these fraternities are often affiliated with conservative or right-wing parties. Burschenschaften themselves do not tend to a single party or group of parties.  Some individual Burschenschaften are associated with right-wing ideas, in particular with the wish for a German state encompassing Austria.

Karl B. Sessa.  The play (Our Visitors, 1815) caricatured the cultural pretentions of newly-rich Jews trying to 'crash' society.  This popular production was given countless times and was reprinted in the noted literary collection Reclam until the early 1900s Jewish commentators complain that it stimulated a flood of 'anti-Semitic' imitations.
1816 Johann Ludwig Klüber (11/10, 1762-2/16, 1837) was a German law professor, author and state official.  ~"The Jews are a politico-religious sect with strict theocratic despotism, the rabbi.  They are in close association, not just for a particular church Of doctrine, but also provide a closed and hereditary sworn The company, for certain political principles and commandments, for the common life and Trade for their own education, which increased a gradual progression to Culture excludes, and for box-like family spirit, the particular perfect physical separation from all non-Jews as intrinsically is commanded.  The spirit of Judaism, this birth raw antiquity, can be recognized by the general Glaubenshochmut ecclesiastical, as the Jews imagine that the elect or the People of God to be, as such, beyond all non-Jews (Gentiles), and therefore physically and clearly different from those that were once even after the arrival of their Messiah, all must be exterminated; on a provision offered by faith and approved hatred of all non-Jews, in a religious and moral teaching, which opposes the Nichtiuden Choice of means for selfish purposes can unjust leeway while the Israelites prohibited, is of his fellow believers take for loans only moderate interest; never tiring of Lauer and haggling spirit to bounce addiction and usury sense; at Volksverderbung by outwitting and overreaching, by company and Favoring immoral and illegal traffic; to fear more stringent, Greed is not satisfactory or not they work abgenötigter; unwillingness to and inability to adapt to personal defense of the country not only because of them own cowardice, but also because it is not the same for theirs identified, on to poverty true nobility of soul and spiritual development.
The reason proves, and experience confirms, that any kind of caste, the political and the religious, most of the political and religious, is incompatible with heads of state and Community welfare.  Well established but, as noted above, the Jews up to this Hours immutable, in political, religious and physical terms, a caste, the same in nature and scope, especially in hot, unrelenting segregation his followers of any other class of people, not in the whole Christian Europe is found.  The Jews are on the whole Erdkreise, according to her own expression, a separate nation, of each other completely finished, with so peculiar, in the civil life so often engage the political and religious establishment, action and Disposition that the Israelite of the subjects in each state in which not, the State power possessions of the Jews is, in many respects, is a state within a state, or more must make.  This reciprocal relationship makes a continual Antagonism between state and Judaism inevitable.  A conflict of this nature is a disease on the body politic, an incurable, while the dermalige Judaism is, an evil that takes imperceptibly but inevitably around, that body finally to its noblest parts, coat and, if not ruining, but incessantly tormented and weakened if it does not set specific limits in time and they are carefully guarded. The Jews, that is the whole complex of confessors Judaism, as it lives in our eyes and weaves, full citizenship, completely grant equal rights to all citizens who live in such would be as much as that exaggerated, incurable evil turn into an incurable cancer of which is a always eating around would be ... "-Overview of diplomatic negotiations of the Vienna Congress, etc. III. Dept. p 390 et seq Frankfurt 1816 (google translate)

Jakob Friedrich Fries (8/23, 1773 – 8/10, 1843) was a German philosopher from Barby.  In 1816, he called on the "demise" of the Jewish religion through conversion and wipe out the rest "caste, root and branch."
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/first-family/masthead_image/5jm_header.jpg?1250870261  James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States, serving two terms from 1817 to 1825.  As an anti-Federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government.  During the War of 1812 Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison.  His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" – a period of relatively little partisan strife – and later by the Panic of 1819 and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory.  Monroe is most noted for his proclamation in 1823 of the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further European intervention in the Americas. 
Sir Philip Francis (10/22, 1740 – 12/23, 1818), English politician and pamphleteer, “Nominally we govern ourselves; actually we are governed by an oligarchy of the American Branch of the International Bankers' Plunderbund.”
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Friedrich_Overbeck_011.jpg/220px-Friedrich_Overbeck_011.jpg Self-Portrait with Family (1820) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Friedrich_Overbeck_008.jpg/220px-Friedrich_Overbeck_008.jpg Italia and Germania
Johann Friedrich Overbeck (7/3, 1789 – 11/12, 1869), was a German painter and member of the Nazarene movement.  In Overbeck's view, the nature of earlier European art had been corrupted throughout contemporary Europe, starting centuries before the French Revolution, and the process of discarding its Christian orientation was proceeding further now.  He sought to express Christian art before the corrupting influence of the late Renaissance, casting aside his contemporary influences, and taking as a guide early Italian Renaissance painters, up to and including Raphael.
Riihs Friedrich Christian/ Christian Friedrich Ruhs (1781- 1820) was a German historian of Scandinavian and Germanic history.   (Christian Friedrich Rühs, came from Swedish Pomerania.  At the time of the wars of liberation, he came out as a nationalist and anti-Semite.  In 1815, he published "On the rights of Jews to German citizenship."   The Jews, should not receive German citizenship, unless they were willing to convert to Christianity. The future German government will once again be "Christian-Germanic".   As in the High Middle Ages, the Jews, they should again identify it with a dress code, "that a German, who is misled by appearance, behavior and language, will still know the Hebrew."  Everything should be done to induce [the Jews] ... to accept Christianity and through it to be led to a true acquisition of German ethnic characteristics and thus to effect the destruction of the Jewish people."  Riihs was not alone: 1815-1819 reached a wave of anti-Jewish and anti-emancipatory slogans.  Because Jews were loyal to their own "state within the state," Ruhs said they could not be loyal to the Christian state.  They could, therefore, be only its subjects, but not its citizens.  The Jews, Ruhs believed, as a tolerated alien group, should be excluded from holding public office, from the army, and from the guilds and corporations, that is, from institutions representing the economic as well as public and national life of the country.  To identify this alien and hostile group within the German midst, Ruhs proposed reviving the medieval yellow patch.

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR4mwzCAGZVLCSU1xpsv8lGuT4H7TTNG1DIci3BiwIdenme8qf2Vw Ernst Moritz Arndt (12/26, 1769 – 1/29, 1860) was a German nationalistic author and poet.  Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom, later against Napoleonic dominance over Germany, and had to flee to Sweden for some time due to his anti-French positions.  He is one of the main founders of German nationalism and the movement for German unification.  While best known in Germany for his fanatical nationalism, Arndt was also dedicated to the cause of the peasantry, which led him to a concern for the welfare of the land itself.  Historians of German environmentalism mention him as the earliest example of 'ecological' thinking in the modern sense.  His remarkable 1815 article “On the Care and Conservation of Forests”, written at the dawn of industrialization in Central Europe, rails against shortsighted exploitation of woodlands and soil, condemning deforestation and its economic causes.  He helped develop the theme of “Volk”.  Arndt, wrote of the war winter of 1812 that the German fatherland was located "where every Frenchman is called foe, and every German is called friend."  He spoke of an internal enemy-the Jews.  The Jews, beneficiaries of political emancipation that the French had thrust upon the unprepared and unwilling Germans, became identified in the German mind with the ideas and values of revolutionary France.  They were not seen as true insiders.  In Christian feudal Germany, the Jews had been outsiders, and in the newly emergent idea of an ethnic, national Germany, the Jews continued to be outsiders.  He also warned of too close contact with Judaism.  While he reasoned that "the seed of Abraham" was hardly predominant in a second generation after conversion to Christianity, he still warned of the "thousands which by the Russian tyranny will now come upon us even more abounding from Poland", "the impure flood from the East".  Moreover he warned of a Jewish intellectual plot, claiming that Jews had "usurped" a good half of all literature.  Arndt called the French "the Jewish people", or "refined bad Jews".  In 1815 he writes about the French: "Jews... I call them again, not only for their Jewish lists and their penny-pinching avarice but even more because of their Jew-like sticking together."
“The German Fatherland” is by Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860) in 1813, before the Battle of Leipzig.  It ends with all German speaking territories in Europe.  In 1870, the “Watch on the Rhine” replaced it.
1.What is the German Fatherland? Is it Prussia country? Is it Swabia? Is it where the Rhine blooms the vine? Is it where the belt pulls the seagull? Oh, no, no, no! |: His country must be higher! : |
2.What is the German Fatherland? Is it Bayerland? Is it Steier country? Is it where the Marsen beef stretches? Is it where the Märker iron stretched? Oh, no, no, no! |: His country must be higher! : |
3.What is the German Fatherland? Is it Pommerland? Westfalenland? Is it where the sand dunes of the blow? Is it where the Danube goes roaring? Oh, no, no, no! |: His country must be higher! : |
4.What is the German Fatherland? So I call this great country! Is the country of the Swiss? Is it Tyrol? The land and people pleased me. But no, no, no! |: His country must be higher! : |
5.What is the German Fatherland? So I call this great country! Certainly, it is the Austria, Rich in honors and victories? Oh, no, no, no! |: His country must be higher! : |
6.This verse is missing in many editions, but is contained in the pamphlets of 1814: What is the German Fatherland? So I call this great country! Is what the prince zerklaubt deceit? The emperor and the empire looted? Oh no! no! no! |: The Homeland needs to be larger. : |
7.What is the German Fatherland? Particular, that in the country I finally! As far as the German tongue sounds and God in heaven sings songs: That it should be! That it should be! |: The gallant German call, your! : |
8.This is the German Fatherland, where the pressure of the hand swears oaths, loyalty from the eye where light flashes Love and warm in the heart sits. That it should be! That it should be! |: The gallant German call, your! : |
9.This is the German Fatherland, where anger destroyed the Welschen trinkets where everyone Franzmann heißet enemy where every German heißet friend. |: That it should be! that it should be! Throughout Germany it should be! : |
10.Throughout Germany it should be! O God of heaven look into it, Give us courage and right-wing German, that we love faithfully and well! |: That it should be! That it should be! Throughout Germany it should be! : |
http://www.visitberlin.de/sites/default/files/imagecache/low_l_slideshow_615_318/II414_Turnvater_Jahn_300x155.jpg Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (8/11, 1778 – 10/15, 1852) was a German Prussian gymnastics educator and nationalist.  He is commonly known as Turnvater Jahn, roughly meaning "father of gymnastics".  Jahn crafted early models of the balance beam, horizontal bar, the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse. In honor and memory of him, some gymnastic clubs, called Turnvereine, took up his name. In his time Friedrich Jahn was seen by both his supporters and opponents as a liberal figure.  He advocated that the German states should unite after the withdrawal of Napoleon's occupying armies, and establish a democratic constitution (under the Hohenzollern monarchy), which would include the right to free speech.  As a German nationalist, Jahn advocated maintaining German language and culture against foreign influence. In 1810 he wrote, "Poles, French, priests, aristocrats and Jews are Germany's misfortune."  At the time Jahn wrote this, the German states were occupied by foreign armies under the leadership of Napoleon.  Also, Jahn was "the guiding spirit" of the fanatic book burning episode carried out by revolutionary students on Wartburg Castle in 1817.  Arndt and his disciple, Jahn, are credited with developing that particular concept of German nationalism associated with the word "Volk."  It is a word that has come to mean more than simply "a people," more than the usual idea of a people united by common traditions and cultural heritage, language, territory, values, and morality.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Hans_Ferdinand_Ma%C3%9Fmann.jpg/220px-Hans_Ferdinand_Ma%C3%9Fmann.jpg Hans Ferdinand Massmann (8/15, 1797 – 8/3, 1874) was a German philologist, known for his studies in Old German language and literature, and for his work introducing gymnastics into schools in Prussia.  He had been a friend and a pupil of Jahn.  In 1826, he became the teacher in charge of gymnastics at the Royal Gymnastic Institute of Munich.  Initially his duties included military cadets.  Later his duties were extended to a public outdoor exercise facility (Turnanstalt) which was to serve all the schools in the city.
Saul Ascher (2/6, 1767 -12/8, 1822) was a German Jew writer, translator and bookseller.  His father was a Banker.  On April 6, 1810, Ascher was arrested in Berlin, but due to political pressure, was released.  On October 6, he was awarded a doctoral degree in absentia from the University of Halle.  In 1812, Ascher received the letter of citizenship.  In ("Remarks on the Civil Improvement of the Jews"), Ascher noted: "Repression creates despondency of the spirit, contempt suppresses every germ of morality and education, tracking every germ of morality.  No nation is more persecuted and despised than the Jewish."  Unlike other Jewish writers, after the Edict of Emperor Joseph II associated reforms, Ascher welcomed Jews to military service.  “Because of the de facto division of the Jewish nation into rich and poor, the haves would redeem themselves, and the burden alone would be passed on to the poor.  Only a forward-running full equality of the Jews should draw a general agreement also with the state to himself.”  With the defeat of Napoleon, the Volkstumsideologie (National Identity) won, through the influence of spokesmen Ernst Moritz Arndt and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn.  Ascher wrote against German nationalism and for the French Revolutionary ideas.  Hans Ferdinand Massmann organized the reaction, "German maniacs" at the Wartburg Festival on October 18, 1817, influenced by Martin Luther had a book-burning.  They burned "Germano mania" and other letters and symbols which mocked the Germans in front of 500 students.


****"Volk" according to George Mosse, signified the union of a group of people with a transcendental "essence," never specified, sometimes called "nature," "cosmos," "mythos." This essence, Mosse says, "was fused to man's innermost nature, and represented the source of his creativity, his depth of feeling, his individuality, and his unity with other members of the Volk."  Jahn, a fiery German patriot who fought in the wars of liberation against Napoleon, in his book Deutsches Volkstum (German Volkdom), published in 1810, elaborated on the concept of Volk: "A state without Volk is nothing, a soulless artifice; a Volk without a state is nothing, a bodiless airy phantom, like the Gypsies and the Jews.  Only state and Volk together can form a Reich, and such a Reich cannot be preserved without Volkdom."  In this work Jahn used the word Volksthiimlichkeit (literally, "quality of Volkdom") to express his glorification of the simple people, the little folk, and the qualities associated with them-simplicity, naturalness, homespunness unspoiled by education and civilization.   According to Jahn, the Volk needed a state to house its soul and pro_vide the means for its preservation.  The German state was to serve some "larger" purpose - the preservation of the Volk and vehicle through which it could exercise its will. It was a Volkist idea that was to persist in Germany down to Hitler, who incorporated it into his ideology.  The state was conceived as a kind of metahistorical entity that was identical with national spirit.   The "Christian" state had once been meant to serve "Christian" purposes, that is, the expansion of Christianity.  The Volkist state appropriated that purpose. The Jew, by definition an outsider in the "Christian" state, remained an outsider in the Volkist conception of the state.  Indeed, the idea of a "Christian" country of which Jews were outsiders served as a transition to the idea of the Volkist state.
In the spirit of Rousseau, the glorification was of the natural man, the simple life, uncontaminated by the artificialities of civilization and the fetters of organized society.  The romanticization of the peasant as the natural man turned him into a receptacle of certain mystic qualities in his relationship to the land.  The Volkist conception turned these universal qualities into specifically German ones.  The peasant, by virtue of his descent from Germanic/Teutonic stock and by virtue of the mysterious qualities of Germanness in the very soil he worked, became the embodiment not merely of natural man, but of Germanic man.  The antagonist of Germanic man became the Jew, the embodiment of the urban man, the man of civilization.  A money economy, for example, as the product of disintegrative civilization, was associated with Jews, who were buyers, sellers, and lenders.  Whereas rootedness was an essential element of Volk, the Wandering Jew became the symbol of the flesh and blood Jews, condemned to eternal homelessness for having rejected the Messiah, whose fathers or forefathers had lived outside Germany, in other lands.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/John_Jay_%28Gilbert_Stuart_portrait%29.jpg/220px-John_Jay_%28Gilbert_Stuart_portrait%29.jpg John Jay (12/12, 1745 – 5/17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–95).  Jay was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church.  He argued unsuccessfully in the provincial convention for a prohibition against Catholics holding office.   Jay believed that the most effective way of ensuring world peace was through propagation of the Christian gospel.  In a letter addressed to Pennsylvania House of Representatives member John Murray, dated 10/12, 1816, Jay wrote, "Real Christians will abstain from violating the rights of others, and therefore will not provoke war.  Almost all nations have peace or war at the will and pleasure of rulers whom they do not elect, and who are not always wise or virtuous.  Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest, of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers."
In The Federalist No. 2, John Jay wrote on 10/31, 1787 after discussing the geographical advantages of the 13 colonies, that would ease the formation and maintenance of a Union, he went on to say the following: "With equal pleasure I have as often taken notice, that Providence has been pleased to give this one connected country, to one united people, a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in their manners and customs, and who, by their joint counsels, arms and efforts, fighting side by side throughout a long and bloody war, have nobly established their general Liberty and Independence.
"This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence, that an inheritance so proper and convenient of a band of brethren united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous and alien sovereignties."  "The strongest ties": A people descended from the same ancestors. A people speaking the same language. A people professing the same religion. A people attached to the same principles of government. A people very similar in their manners and customs.

**** The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816, five years after the First Bank of the United States lost its own charter.  The Second Bank of the United States was initially headquartered in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, the same as the First Bank, and had branches throughout the nation.  The Second Bank was chartered by many of the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew the charter of the original Bank of the United States.  The predominant reason that the Second Bank of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812, the U.S. experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military operations.  To receive usurious loans from Rothschild and other Jewish European bankers.  Subsequently, the credit and borrowing status of the United States were at their lowest levels since its founding.  Like the First Bank, the Second Bank was also chartered for 20 years, and also failed to get its charter renewed.  It existed for 5 more years as an ordinary bank before going bankrupt in 1841.
By the early 1830s, President Jackson had come to thoroughly dislike the Second Bank of the United States because of its fraud and corruption. Jackson then had an investigation done on the Bank which he said established “beyond question that this great and powerful institution had been actively engaged in attempting to influence the elections of the public officers by means of its money.”  Although its charter was bound to run out in 1836, Jackson wanted to "kill" the Second Bank of the United States even earlier. Jackson is considered primarily responsible for its demise, seeing it as an instrument of political corruption and a threat to American liberties.
Matthew Gregory Lewis (7/9, 1775 – 5/14, 1818) was an English novelist and dramatist, often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, because of the success of his classic Gothic novel, The Monk.  Featuring demonic pacts, rape, incest, and such props as the Wandering Jew, ruined castles, and the Spanish Inquisition, The Monk serves more or less as a compendium of Gothic taste.
Mordecai Manuel Noah (7/14, 1785– 5/22, 1851) was a Jew playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. Born in a family of Portuguese Sephardic ancestry; he was the most important Jewish lay leader in New York in the pre-Civil War period, and the first Jew born in the United States to reach national prominence.  “Jews must be turned aside from the crooked paths of traffic, miscalled commerce, to industry and agriculture.” (Address at consecration of Temple Shearith Israel, New York City, 1818)  1813 - 1814: “Travels in England, France, Spain, and the Barbary States”; 1837: “Discourse of the Evidence of the American Indians being the descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israël “; 1844: “Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews”
President Madison's appointed him in 1815 to the post of American consul in Tunis.  Noah, described as a loud, sharp-tongued, irritating, insistent man prone to self-dramatization, controversy and showmanship, fantasized about founding a Jewish homeland in the New World.  Noah nullified a British treaty with the Bey of Tunis, in which the latter promised not to purchase or acquire British ships captured by any "Christian state."  When the British protested the sale of a British prize captured by an American warship, Noah said the British had no case because the United States was not a Christian state.  Its citizenry, he explained, included Jews.  His Jewish homeland was to be Grand Island, New York.  At the same time he was also revving up a campaign to persuade the sultan of Turkey to create a Jewish homeland in Syria and Palestine.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR_q7Spz5cyJR8mjNYMdFgkjaMEZwQDZFo0a0-7yWME8p8kEKCr 1818 Arthur Schopenhauer (2/22, 1788 – 9/21, 1860) was a German philosopher known for his atheistic pessimism and philosophical clarity.  At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the fundamental question of whether reason alone can unlock answers about the world. Schopenhauer's most influential work, “The World as Will and Representation”, emphasized the role of man's basic motivation, which Schopenhauer called will.  His analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled.  Consequently, he favored a lifestyle of negating human desires, similar to the teachings of Buddhism and Vedanta.  Schopenhauer's metaphysical analysis of will, his views on human motivation and desire, and his aphoristic writing style influenced many well-known thinkers including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Gustav Jung, and Jorge Luis Borges.  “The fatherland of the Jews is the other Jews, hence they are fighting for them like for altar and home and no other community on earth sticks as tight as this one.”   “It is an error to consider the Jews as a religious sect, but when, to favor this error, an expression …’the Jewish Confession’, it becomes an expression not only totally incorrect but calculated to mislead.  Jewish nation is correct.  Their religion is the tie that binds them together, the (focal point), the battle-cry, the sign of recognition…”  “What a mixed company inhabits the Temple of Universal Fame - generals, ministers, charlatans, jugglers, dancers, singers, millionaires and Jews! It is a temple in which more sincere recognition, more genuine esteem, is given to the several skills of such folk than to superiority of mind... The Jews are the great masters of the lie.”-In his 1851 work, “Parerga und Paralipomena”. 
 “The fatherland of the Jews is the other Jews, hence they are fighting for them like for altar and home and no other community on earth sticks as tight as this one.” 
“All truth goes through three stages.  First it is ridiculed.  Then it is violently opposed.   Finally, it is accepted as self-evident.” 
1818 Schopenhauer "The Eternal Jew Ahasuerus is nothing but the personification of the entire Jewish People ... The homeland of the Jews, the rest of the Jews, so he fights for them as per ara et focis holds (for altar and hearth), and no community on earth so tightly like this. This shows how absurd it is, to them, or a share in the government Administration of a state want to admit. Their religion, of their home state with fused and one is by no means the main thing, but only the bond that holds them together and the battle cry, because they recognize themselves. This is also because that even the baptized Jew not, as yet otherwise all apostates, the hatred and loathing the rest are on invites, but usually does not stop, a friend and comrade of the same to be and to regard them as his true compatriots.  May even at the regular and solemn prayers of the Jews must be united to what ten, when a shortage, enter a converted Jew for it, but no other Christian. " (google translate)
"Accordingly, it is an error if the Jews be regarded merely as a religious sect; But even if, in order to promote this mistake Judaism with a Christian Church borrowed expression is referred to as 'Jewish religion', so this is a fundamentally wrong, calculated to mislead directing expression that should not even be allowed. Rather, it is 'Jewish nation' the right thing. "-Ibid II, § 133


Joachim Heinrich Campe (June 29, 1746– October 22, 1818) was a German writer, linguist, educator and publisher.  His popular “Dictionary of German language” defined the synagogue as a (Jew school) because, like ornery schoolboys, Jewish worshippers mumbled to themselves in an "unlovely" way.  Campe found synagogue goings-on as chaotic and incomprehensible as had Samuel Pepys in England.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQlmR14cKBFJFQhQdUNj33qHxefBexOLtCmkoo4sABlY-MK6V-4nQ Mary Shelley (née Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; 8/30 1797 – 2/1 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel “Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus” (1818). She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley.  She may have used the Jewish Golem as inspiration for the Frankenstein monster.   In her book, “Valperga…” Shelley has a character saying: "Thou vile Jew," he exclaimed, "utter not those words again!  Thou, lord of Cremona!  A usurer, a bloodsucker! -- Why all the moisture squeezed from thy miserable carcass would not buy one drop of the noble heart's tide of your debtors.”
Rothschild French Central Bank: 1818: Following the French securing massive loans in 1817 in order to help rebuild after their disastrous defeat at Waterloo, Rothschild agents bought vast amounts of French government bonds causing their value to increase.  On November 5th they dumped the lot on the open market causing their value to plummet and France to go into a financial panic.  The Rothschilds then stepped in to take control of the French money supply.  This was the same year the Rothschilds were able to loan £5,000,000 to the Prussian government.  The French stop trying to fight the British Beast Empire which wants hegemony over the world.  From this point on, the British and the French are nominal allies in most foreign wars.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRw4At-5cIOodZQDhFVOkpqDFbSogtsR11XVJHgh7phxygc-VPdEQ Hep Hep Riots: 1819 Metternich repressed German nationalistic propaganda and activities.  The movement called for "revenge" against the Jews, "who are living among us and who are increasing like locusts.... Our battlecry will be 'Hep! Hep! Hep!  Death and destruction to all the Jews!'   It was the first major chapter in the history of German nationalism in which the Jews were marked as the enemy.
The Hep-Hep riots were pogroms against German Jews.  The anti-Semitic communal violence began on August 2, 1819 in Würzburg and soon reached as far as regions of Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia.  Many Jews were killed and much Jewish property was destroyed.  "Hep-Hep" was the perpetrators' derogatory rallying cry. Sources vary on its etymology.  One theory is that it is an acronym from the Latin "Hierosolyma est perdita" ("Jerusalem is lost"), a rallying cry of the Crusaders.  A more likely source for the rallying cry is the traditional herding cry of German shepherds.  Jews were perceived to be attempting to take control of Europe, particularly of its financial sector.  Many Europeans, reeling from the famine of 1816, were heavily indebted to Jewish bankers and moneylenders.”
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Calliopean_Society_Emblem.jpg/220px-Calliopean_Society_Emblem.jpg The Calliopean Society is a literary and debating society founded at Yale College in 1819 by a group of members of Linonia dissatisfied by the result of the election for that society's president.  Its name refers to Calliope, first and wisest of the muses, the muse of Epic Poetry, and daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (memory).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Gerhard_von_K%C3%BCgelgen_portrait_of_Friedrich.jpg/220px-Gerhard_von_K%C3%BCgelgen_portrait_of_Friedrich.jpg Caspar David Friedrich (9/5, 1774 – 5/7, 1840) was a German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.  He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins.  His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world.  Alongside other Romantic painters, Friedrich helped position landscape painting as a major genre within Western art.
1) The Tetschen Altar, or The Cross in the Mountains (1807).  2) The Cross Beside The Baltic (1815) 3)
1http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Caspar_David_Friedrich_040.jpg/220px-Caspar_David_Friedrich_040.jpg 2 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Caspar_David_Friedrich_024.jpg/100px-Caspar_David_Friedrich_024.jpg 3http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Caspar_David_Friedrich_032_%28The_wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog%29.jpg/220px-Caspar_David_Friedrich_032_%28The_wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog%29.jpg 3)Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818).
Friedrich Leopold Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg (11/7, 1750 – 12/5, 1819), was a German poet who wrote History of the Religion of Jesus Christ (17 vols., 1806-1818).
Johann Nepomuk Brischar (8/22, 1819—4/11, 1897) was a Roman Catholic historian.  His principal work is the continuation of Count Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg's History of the Religion of Jesus Christ, of which he wrote volumes forty-five to fifty-four, bringing the history up to 1245 CE.  His share of the work does not reach the high standard of his great predecessor.  





1820             1820            1820          1820
****Scientific Racialism:
Robert Boyle FRS (1/25 1627 – 12/31 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology.  Boyle was a believer in monogenism that all races no matter how diverse came from the same source, Adam and Eve.  He believed that Adam and Eve were originally white and that Caucasians could give birth to different colored races.
Henri de Boulainvilliers (10/21, 1658– 1/23, 1722) was a French writer and historian.  He identified Spinoza's conatus with the right of conquest and the "right of the strongest" of which he made large use in what has been considered as one of the first "theory of races," although it was very distinct from 19th century "scientific racism".  Boulainvilliers divided the French as two races: (i) the aristocratic "French race" descended from the invader Germanic Franks, and (ii) the indigenous Gallo-Roman race.  The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest, the contrary of modern nationalism.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQafdnccbkTgU9HP7b3j2QauzCImGDyLMAn64IGDzOdwC9uk4CX Carl Linnaeus (5/23 1707 – 1/10 1778) was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature.  He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.  In Systema Naturae (1767), he established five human-race taxa: (i) the Americanus, (ii) the Asiaticus, (iii) the Africanus, (iv) the Europeanus, and (v) the Monstrosus, based upon geographic origin and skin color.  Each race possessed innate physiognomic characteristics: the Americanus were red-skinned, of stubborn character, and angered easily; the Africanus were black-skinned, relaxed, and of negligent character; the Asiaticus race were yellow-skinned, avaricious, and easily distracted; whereas, unlike the character-imbalanced colored people, the Europeanus were white-skinned, of gentle character, inventive mind, and bellicose; and the Monstrosus were mythologic human sub-races.  The sub-races were the "four-footed, mute, hairy" (Feral man); the animal-reared (Hessian wolf boy), the (Hannoverian boy), the (Wild-girl of Champagne), and the agile, but faint-hearted (Monstrous man) sub-races: the Patagonian giant, the Dwarf of the Alps, and the (Hottentot).  In Amoenitates academicae (1763), Linnaeus presented the (Anthropomorphic man) race of mythologic, humanoid creatures, such as the troglodyte, the satyr, the hydra, and the phoenix, incorrectly identified as simian creatures.
Georges Cuvier (8/23, 1769 – 5/13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist and a major figure in natural sciences research instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils.  He influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racialism.  Cuvier believed there were three distinct races the Caucasian (white), Mongolian (yellow) and the Ethiopian (black).  He thought Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that was the original race of mankind, and the other two races arose by survivors' escaping in different directions after a major catastrophe hit the earth 5,000 years ago.  He theorized that the survivors lived in complete isolation from each other and developed separately.  Cuvier thought the Caucasian skull was the most beautiful shape and also superior to others by its genius, courage and activity.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (5/11 1752 – 1/22 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist and anthropologist, one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history, whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of what he called human races, of which he determined five.
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (9/7 1707 – 4/16 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedic author.
Johann Blumenbach and Comte de Buffon were believers in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin.  They also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial origins.  They both said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting.  They believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken, and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.  According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: “I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.”
Part 2 in 1920
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States, serving two terms from 1817 to 1825. 
http://www.poets.org/images/authors/pshelley.jpg Percy Bysshe Shelley (8/4 1792 – 7/8 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is critically regarded as among the finest lyric poets in the English language.  Shelley was famous for his association with John Keats and Lord Byron.  The novelist Mary Shelley was his second wife.  Oedipus tyrannus; or, Swellfoot the Tyrant(1820) was a political satire with three absurd Jewish characters: Moses, a "sow-gelder," Solomon, a "porkman" and Zephaniah, a butcher.  They are summoned by King Swellfoot and ordered to slay all their pigs.  Some Shelley experts believe that Zephaniah may be a spoof upon financier Nathan Rothschild (who was also referred to by William Thackeray, as "a greasy-faced compound of donkey and pig").
John Hewlett (1762 – 4/13, 1844) was a prominent biblical scholar in nineteenth-century Britain.  His “Concise History of the Jews” was a widely-read work of the time.  It was frank, rather than flattering.
http://www.philographikon.com/imagesreligion/judaica237143.gif "The Arrest of Mr. Habergam Habakkuk"(1820) from fictional book by William Maginn (1794‑1842)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Julius_Schnorr_von_Carolsfeld_002.jpg/220px-Julius_Schnorr_von_Carolsfeld_002.jpg The Wedding at Cana (1820) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Schnorr_Buerkner.jpg/220px-Schnorr_Buerkner.jpg Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (3/26, 1794 – 5/24, 1872) was a German painter.  Schnorr followed the founders of the new artistic brotherhood, the Nazarene movement, in their pilgrimage to Rome in 1815.  This school of religious and romantic art tended to reject modern styles, and reverted to and revived the principles and practice of earlier periods.  At the outset an effort was made to recover fresco painting and monumental art. … Schnorr's third period is marked by his Biblical illustrations.  He was a Lutheran, and took a broad and un-sectarian view.  An 1851 visit to London generated a commission for a Picture Bible, for which he created over 200 woodcuts.  While in London he also received a commission to design many of the glass windows for the St. Paul's Cathedral (the windows were manufactured in the royal foundry in Munich).

1820 “Little Hans”, "Hänschen klein" is a German Folk Song originating in the Biedermeier period (1815-1848).  Little Hans goes alone Out into the wide world. Stick and hat suits him well. He is in good spirits. / But his mother cries so much, For she no longer has little Hans. "Wish you good luck," she showed in her eyes, "just come home soon."
1820 ("You, you are in my heart") is a German Folk Song, from 1820.: You, you are in my heart. you, you are in my mind. You, you make me much pain, You don't know how good I am for you. Yes, yes, yes, yes you don't know how good I am for you. / So, as I love you so, so love me too. The most tender desires I feel for you forever. Yes, yes, yes, yes, I feel for you forever. / But, but may I trust you you, you with a light heart? You, you know you can rely on me You do know how good I am! Yes, yes, yes, yes You do know how good I am! / And, and if in the distance, it seems to me like your picture, then, then I wish so much that we were united in love. Yes, yes, yes, yes, that we were united in love.
7/4/1821  John Quincy Adams said:  "Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled," Adams said, "there will [America's] heart, her benedictions and her benedictions and her prayers be.  But she goes not abroad, in search of monsters to destroy.  She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all.  She is the champion and vindicator only of her own."  America well knows, Adams continued, that if she goes abroad in search of monsters to destroy, "the fundamental maxims of her policy would insensibly change from liberty to force. . . . She might become the dictatress of the world.  She would be no longer the ruler of her own spirit."
1821 Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (4/1, 1753 – 2/26, 1821) was a Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher.  He was the most influential spokesmen for hierarchical authoritarianism in the period immediately following the French Revolution of 1789.  Maistre argued for the restoration of hereditary monarchy, which he regarded as a divinely sanctioned institution, and for the indirect authority of the Pope over temporal matters.  According to Maistre, only governments founded upon a Christian constitution, implicit in the customs and institutions of all European societies but especially in Catholic European monarchies, could avoid the disorder and bloodshed that followed the implementation of rationalist political programs, such as the 1789 revolution.  Maistre was an enthusiastic proponent of the principle of hierarchical authority, which the Revolution sought to destroy; he extolled the monarchy, he exalted the privileges of the papacy, and he glorified God's providence.
1821: Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild was sent to Naples, Italy.  By 1823: The Rothschilds take over the financial operations of the Catholic Church, worldwide. (?)


1823        1823       1823       1823
Jonathan S Smith was an American dramatist.  His play The Seige of Algiers (1823) claimed that Jews were the treacherous allies of the Barbary pirates during the American naval conflict there.
1823 From the 1823 book Universal Geography, entry on the Congo, specifically the then kingdom of Loango: “A fact worthy the attention of travellers, is, that, according to Oldendorp, the kingdom of Loango contains black Jews, scattered throughout the country ; they are despised by the negroes, who do not even deign to eat with them; they are occupied in trade, and keep the sabbath so strictly that they do not even converse on that day; they have a separate burying ground, very far from any habitation. The tombs are constructed with masonry, and ornamented with Hebrew inscriptions; the singularity of which excites the laughter of the negroes, who discern in them only serpents, lizards, and other reptiles. M. Ehrmann, finding it impossible to explain the origin of these Jews, doubts the reality of the fact; Busching, however, Michaelis, and Zimmermann, do not hesitate to admit their existence; Bruns considers them as descendants of the Falashes of Habesh, or Abyssinia ; and Sprengel wishes them to be considered as the descendants of Portuguese Jews, who, having quitted their country, are no longer afraid to profess openly the religion of their fathers.”
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SjxPv6b92IM/UH7Pj-ZEYJI/AAAAAAAAJ0M/zT2xRDKq1_Y/s320/1.jpg  Joseph Emerson Worcester (8/24, 1784–10/27, 1865) was an American lexicographer who was the chief competitor to Noah Webster of Webster's Dictionary.  Worcester published his two volume Geographical Dictionary in 1817, the extract below is from the expanded second edition, published in 1823: "POLAND ... The constitution has been defined the government of a half a million of men of property, styled nobles, over 1,000,000 Jewish traders, and 13,000,000 slaves. ... The Jews comprise the men of business of the country ; the current money is chiefly in their hands, and a great proportion of the land is mortgaged to them."

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/images/va-pope-pius-vii.jpg Pope Pius VII, OSB (8/14, 1742 – 8/20, 1823), born Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823.  He was known generally as an 'anti-Semite' by Jewish writers.  On the United States' suppression of the Muslim Barbary Pirates along the southern Mediterranean coast, who kidnapped Christians for ransom and slavery, Pope Pius VII said that the United States “had done more for the cause of Christianity than the most powerful nations of Christendom have done for ages.”
http://landtax.co.il/images/ricardo.gif David Ricardo (4/19, 1772 – 9/11, 1823) was an Jewish English political economist, often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and John Stewart Mill.   He was also a member of Parliament, businessman, financier and speculator, who amassed a considerable personal fortune.  Perhaps his most important contribution was the theory of comparative advantage, a fundamental argument in favor of free trade among countries and of specialization among individuals.  Ricardo argued that there is mutual benefit from trade (or exchange) even if one party (e.g. resource-rich country, highly-skilled artisan) is more productive in every possible area than its trading counterpart (e.g. resource-poor country, unskilled laborer), as long as each concentrates on the activities where it has a relative productivity advantage.
Born in London, Ricardo was the third of 17 children of a Sephardic Jewish family of Portuguese origin who had recently relocated from Holland.  His father was a well-to-do stockbroker.  At age 21, Ricardo eloped with a Quaker, Priscilla Anne Wilkinson, leading to estrangement from his family. His father disowned him and his mother apparently never spoke to him again.   Without family support, he started his own business as a stockbroker, in which he became quite successful thanks to the connections [good Jewish connections] he made when working with his father.  During the Battle of Waterloo, just like Nathan Mayer Rothschild he bet against the French victory and invested in British securities.  By the time he retired from the Exchange at the age of 43, his fortune was estimated at about £600,000 of his time.  At the time of his marriage, Ricardo disconnected from Judaism and became a Unitarian.  [This was mostly an earlier version of the Austrian School.  It was very Jewish and international, no consideration for the land of the citizens.]
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQxvG_ypuap2KWrlPOl2hrpS06ERFMcoI-VIbZn5AjpJhIqCSd05g Lord George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (1/22, 1788 – 4/19, 1824), was a British poet and a leading figure in Romanticism.  The great British poet, Lord Byron, wrote "Tis gold, not steel, that rears the conqueror's arch ... Jews ... direct the world with all the spirit of their sect."  In 1823, “How rich is Britain! Not indeed in mines, Or peace or plenty, corn or oil, or wines; No land of Canaan, full of milk and honey, Nor (save in paper shekels) ready money; But, let us not to own the truth refuse, Was ever Christian land so rich in Jews?  Those parted with their teeth to good King John, And now, ye kings! they kindly draw your own; All states, all things, all sovereigns they control, And waft a loan 'from Indus to the pole,' The banker - broker - baron - brethren speed To aid our bankrupt tyrants in their need... Two Jews, a chosen people, can command In every realm their scripture-promised land: Two Jews - but not Samaritans - direct The world, with all the spirit of their sect.  What is the happiness of earth to them?  A congress forms their 'New Jerusalem,' Where baronies and orders both invite 0 holy Abraham!  Dost thou see the sight?  Thy followers mingling with these royal swine, Who spit not 'on their Jewish gabardine,'. . . On Shylock's shore behold them stand afresh, To cut from nations' hearts their pound of flesh...” (“The Age of Bronze”)  He spoke about political manipulation by "Jew Rothschild and his fellow Christian Baring".
“The banker-broker-baron-brethren speed, To aid these bankrupt tyrants in their need. Nor these alone; Columbia feels no less Fresh speculations follow each success; And philanthropic Israel deigns to drain Her mild percentage from exhausted Spain. Nor, without Abraham's seed, can Russia march Tis gold, not steel, that rears the conqueror's arch. .. Where now, oh Pope is thy forsaken toe?  Could it not favour judah with some kicks? Or has it ceased to "kick against the pricks"? On Shylock's shore, behold them stand afresh, To cut from nation's hearts, their pound of flesh.”

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8b/Claude_Henri_de_Saint-Simon.jpg/220px-Claude_Henri_de_Saint-Simon.jpg Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (10/17, 1760 – 5/19, 1825) was a French early socialist theorist who influenced Marxism and the discipline of sociology.  He was born an aristocrat; the political ideologies he adopted in later life do not fall into the aristocratic category.  In opposition to the feudal and military system he advocated a form of state capitalist-technocratic socialism, an arrangement where industrial chiefs should control society.  In place of the church, he felt the direction of society should fall to the men of science. Men who are fitted to organize society for productive labor are entitled to rule it.   Prior to the publication of the Nouveau Christianisme, Saint-Simon had not concerned himself with theology.  In this work he starts from a belief in God, and his object in the treatise is to reduce Christianity to its simple and essential elements.  He does this by clearing it of the dogmas and other excrescences and defects that he says gathered round the Catholic and Protestant forms of it.  He propounds as the comprehensive formula of the new Christianity this precept: "The whole of society ought to strive towards the amelioration of the moral and physical existence of the poorest class; society ought to organize itself in the way best adapted for attaining this end."  This principle became the watchword of the entire Saint-Simon school of thought.  During his lifetime the views of Saint-Simon had very little influence; he left only a few devoted disciples who continued to advocate the doctrines of their master, whom they revered as a prophet.  The most important were the Jew Olinde Rodrigues, the favored disciple of Saint-Simon.
10/20/1822 The Congress of Verona met as part of the series of international conferences that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, which had instituted the Concert of Europe at the close of the Napoleonic Wars.  The Quintuple Alliance was represented by Russia, Austria, Prussia, France, and the United Kingdom.  It is said there was a Secret Treaty, it’s first article stating, “…the system of representative government is equally incompatible with Monarchial principles:…(which desires) to put an end to the system of representative governments, and to prevent its being introduced in countries, anywhere in the world, wherever it is not yet known.”
Pope Leo XII.PNG Leo XII #252 served from 9/28, 1823–2/10, 1829 Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia, 1824.


http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTK9BMKhWquiEPVIKqe4xrA8zCBYNyVrCh0QULDAXCISZilUVdE  The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823.  It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. The Doctrine also asserted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.  The Doctrine was issued at a time when many Latin American countries were on the verge of becoming independent from the Spanish Empire.  It would be invoked by many, including Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan and others.  It has been suggested that this was British initiated to keep their competitors France and Spain out of Central and South America.
The Monroe Doctrine initiates future interpretations of US intervention into the Americas.  Nationalists striving for true independence from the Yanquis are stopped.  Jews continue their international relations and as the supreme global traders manipulated corporation boards and cheap labor.  Jews dominate vices.  Gambling and criminal meccas are established on smaller islands such as Cuba (until 1959) and Aruba.  Etc, etc.
The strong Catholic Christian background and immigrants from Germany and Italy do offset much of their destructive activity.

1824 Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (September 8, 1774 – February 9, 1824) was a Roman Catholic Augustinian nun, stigmatic, mystic, visionary and ecstatic.  She had the vision that a Jewish woman burning in Hell was rescued by her after she confessed to using the blood of a Christian child to bake matzoh for Passover.

****Folklore:
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTZGuPSqW64JKdUPpPq8aVlVxWvmPP8q_3O6Nzo5DKp4DtU_VzO The Brothers Grimm, Jacob (1/4, 1785 – 9/20, 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (2/24, 1786 – 12/16, 1859), were academics best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales, which became popular. Jacob also did academic work in linguistics, related to how the sounds in words shift over time (Grimm's law), and together they wrote a German dictionary.  They are among the best-known story tellers of folk tales from Europe, and their work popularized such tales as "Rumpelstiltskin", "Snow White", "Rapunzel", "Cinderella", "Hansel and Gretel", and "The Frog Prince".  Several murderous cautionary tales, along with the nightmare of ''The Jew in the Brambles,'' a story not much reprinted since 1945, in which the hero tortures a Jewish peddler using a magic fiddle, making him dance in brambles; at the end the peddler is hanged.  Three of the Grimms' tales contain Jewish figures; ''the two that feature anti-Semitism in its most virulent form were included in the Compact Edition designed for young readers'' (1825).  Grimm's Brothers tales viz., Jew in the Thorns, The Jews Stone, The Girl Who Was Killed by Jews, The Good Cloth.  Grimms' original Rumpelstiltskin was an anti-Semitic stereotype. 
The Town Musicians of Bremen is a folktale recorded by the Brothers Grimm.  Despite the title of the fairy tale, the characters never actually arrive in Bremen.  In the story a donkey, a dog, a cat, and a rooster, all past their prime years in life and usefulness on their respective farms, were soon to be discarded or mistreated by their masters.  One by one they leave their homes and set out together.  They decide to go to Bremen, known for its freedom, to live without owners and become musicians there.  There is a statue in Bremen.  There is a Fairy Tale tourist route throughout the region.
http://eclipse.rutgers.edu/shared/images/2000m.jpg Mother Goose is the name given to an archetypal country woman.  English readers were familiar with Mother Hubbard, already a stock figure when Edmund Spenser published his satire "Mother Hubbard's tale" in 1590.  For instance, prior to 1939 Mother Goose's Jack and the Beanstalk explained that “Jack found one fine morning As I have been told, His goose had laid him An egg of pure gold.  Jack rode to his mother, The news for to tell, She called him a good boy And said it was well.  Jack sold his gold egg To a rogue of a Jew, Who cheated him out of The half of his due.  Then Jack went a-courting A lady so gay, As fair as the lily, And sweet as the May.  The Jew and the Squire Came behind his back, And began to belabor The sides of poor Jack.  And then the gold egg Was thrown into the sea.”  Jack gets the egg back, but “The Jew got the goose Which he vowed he would kill, Resolving at once His pockets to fill.”
http://paganpressbooks.com/jpl/ANDERSN.JPG Hans Christian Andersen (April 2, 1805 – August 4, 1875) was a Danish author and poet noted for his children's stories.  These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier", "The Snow Queen", "The Little Mermaid", "Thumbelina", "The Little Match Girl", and "The Ugly Duckling".  During his lifetime he was acclaimed for having delighted children worldwide, and was feted by royalty. His poetry and stories have been translated into more than 150 languages. They have inspired motion pictures, plays, ballets, and animated films.  As early as 1829, he included a story of the The wandering Jew, legend of a Jew who hit the suffering Jesus and therefore was condemned to eternal, restless wandering.  He also wrote a short story of  The Jewish Girl who became a Christian.
Also Andrew Lang 1889.
Also Charles Perrault 1697
File:Wilhelm Hauff.jpg Wilhelm Hauff (11/29, 1802 – 11/18, 1827) was a German poet and novelist.  He wrote Märchen (fairy tales) in 1826. Some of these stories are very popular in German-speaking countries to this day, such as (The Story of Little Muck), (Caliph Stork) and (The Tale of the Ghost Ship) — all set in the Orient; as well as (Little Longnose), (The Cold Heart) and (The Inn in the Spessart), set in Germany.  In 1827, he wrote "The Jew Suess".  "This was a time when a widespread fear began to develop of Jews being able to assimilate into German society," says Shedletzki. "The court Jews, especially Oppenheimer, were seen as emblematic of this trend, because they had been the first Jews to penetrate Christian German circles."
 August Kopisch (5/26, 1799 – 2/6, 1853), was a German poet and painter.  The Heinzelmännchen are a race of creatures appearing in a tale connected with the city of Cologne in Germany.  The little house gnomes are said to have done all the work of the citizens of Cologne during the night, so that the inhabitants of Cologne could be very lazy during the day.  According to the legend, this went on until a tailor's wife got so curious to see the gnomes that she scattered peas onto the floor of the workshop to make the gnomes slip and fall.  The gnomes, being infuriated, disappeared and never returned. From that time on, the citizens of Cologne had to do all their work by themselves.  This legend was first written down by the Cologne teacher Ernst Weyden (1805-1869) in 1826.   It was translated into English by Thomas Keightley and published 1828 in his book "The Fairy Mythology".  In 1836, Kopisch published a famous poem of this story.
http://www.gardengigs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Solar-Garden-Gnome.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/German_garden_gnome.jpg/220px-German_garden_gnome.jpg A garden gnome produced for the purpose of ornamentation and protection from evil sorcery.  These figurines originate in 19th century Germany, where they became known as (literally "garden dwarf").  The application of the term gnome in English is first attested in the 1930s.  Garden statuary has been common in Europe at least since the Renaissance.  It's possible that Baehr and Maresch of Dresden produced the first ceramic gnomes, having them in their stock as early as 1841.  The garden gnome quickly spread across Germany and into France and England, and wherever gardening was a serious hobby.  It has been suggested by some scholars that the garden gnome is a descendant of the Greco-Roman fertility god Priapus, whose statue was often found in ancient gardens.  Gnomes are often depicted as having beards and are typically males, and usually wear red hats and are known to smoke pipes.  They are made in various poses and pursuing various pastimes, such as fishing or napping.

1825 “The Faithful Hussar”, "Der treue Husar" – is a German Folk Song from 1825.  A faithful soldier, without fear, He loved his girl for one whole year, For one whole year and longer yet, His love for her, he'd ne'er forget. /   This youth to foreign land did roam, While his true love, fell ill at home. Sick unto death, she no one heard. Three days and nights she spoke no word. / And when the youth received the news, That his dear love, her life may lose, He left his place and all he had, To see his love, went this young lad... / He took her in his arms to hold, She was not warm, forever cold. Oh quick, oh quick, bring light to me, Else my love dies, no one will see... / Pallbearers we need two times three, Six farmhands they are so heavy. It must be six of soldiers brave, To carry my love to her grave. /  A long black coat, I must now wear. A sorrow great, is what I bear. A sorrow great and so much more, My grief it will end nevermore.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Jeanpaul.jpg Jean Paul (3/21, 1763 – 11/14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.  The love of nature was one of Jean Paul's deepest pleasures; his expressions of religious feelings are also marked by a truly poetic spirit, for to him visible things were but the symbols of the invisible, and in the unseen realities alone he found elements which seemed to him to give significance and dignity to human life.  Jean Paul's personality was deep and many-sided; with all his willfulness and eccentricity he was a man of a pure and sensitive spirit, with a passionate scorn for pretence and an ardent enthusiasm for truth and goodness.  Quotations: “Joy is inexhaustible, unlike seriousness.” “Music is the moonlight in the gloomy night of life.” “Many young people get worked up about opinions that they will share in 20 years.” “Too much trust is a foolishness, too much distrust a tragedy.” “The German language is the organ among the languages.” “A man never describes his own character so clearly as when he describes another.” “We learn our virtues from our friends who love us; our faults from the enemy who hates us.  We cannot easily discover our real character from a friend.  He is a mirror, on which the warmth of our breath impedes the clearness of the reflection.” “What a father says to his children is not heard by the world, but it will be heard by posterity.”
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxkLCZbo5lZ7GEKTwJeh61ogbVRhMq6XfIgzi0Trn6V8hf7-sjTsar Nicholas I (Pavlovič), (7/6 1796 – 3/2 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs.  In his capacity as the emperor he was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland.  Nicholas I of Russia saw that Alexander’s reforms with the Jews did not work and issues about 600 laws to contain their criminal conduct.  “The ruin of the peasants in these provinces are the Zhids.  They are full-fledged leeches sucking up these unfortunate provinces to the point of exhaustion…. They are everything here, merchants, contractors, pothouse keepers, millers, carriers, artisans, etc., and they are so clever in squeezing and cheating the common people on the unsown bread and discount the harvest before the fields are sown.” (Diary, 1816) (see 1855)
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/first-family/masthead_image/6ja_header_sm.jpg?1250870515  John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He was also an American diplomat and served in both the Senate and House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of President John Adams and Abigail Adams.  As a diplomat, Adams was involved in many international negotiations, and helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State.  As president, he proposed a program of modernization and educational advancement, but was stymied by Congress, controlled by his enemies.  He had also graduated college and served as an ambassador to Russia at age 14.  John Quincy Adams, visited a synagogue in Amsterdam and bitterly remarked in his diary: "I am sure [the Jews in Amsterdam] are all wretched creatures for I think I never saw in my life such a set of miserable looking people, and they would steal your eyes out of your head if they could."  “The highest glory of the American Revolution was this; it connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.”
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EqFVRT87hpc/UH85Yz3gcpI/AAAAAAAAJ3M/H0o4_V0Gbwk/s320/1.jpg Ebenezer Henderson (11/17, 1784 – 5/17, 1858) was a Scottish divine, and a highly accomplished linguist who understood perhaps twenty, or more languages. He spent two decades travelling and preaching in Eurasia, including several years—at the personal invitation of Czar Alexander I—spent exploring the vast Russian Empire, whilst supervising translations of the bible into numerous languages.  A year after his return to Britain in 1825, he published his book Biblical Researches and Travels in Russia, in which he described his time in Poland, and the Jews he meet there. Henderson states that due to the Jewish custom of marrying their children off at a very young age, Jewish men in Poland would regularly have sexual relationships with their pubescent, and pre-pubescent daughters-in-laws, whilst their sons—the husbands of the abused girls—were still children themselves.   Henderson termed this "incestuous familiarity", he knew that sexual relationships with daughters-in-law are strictly forbidden in all branches of Judaism by G-d's Torah (Leviticus 18:15).  But Henderson didn't seem to be aware that Rabbinical Jews (90% of the Jews in the world today), made themselves a Talmudic loophole, which exempts a Jewish man from being technically guilty of 1. Adultery, 2. Incest, if they have intercourse with their daughter-in-law, whilst her husband (their son) is still a minor.

Friedrich August Gottreu Tholuck (3/30, 1799 – 6/10, 1877) was a German Protestant theologian and church leader.  He studied under the House of Orientalist Heinrich Friedrich von Diez (1750–1817).  He was introduced to pietistic circles in Berlin, and came under the influence of Baron Hans Ernst von Kottwitz, who became his "spiritual father," and of the historian Neander.  Among his works were (Speculative doctrine of the Trinity of the later East) (1826), his well-known essay on the nature and moral influence of heathenism (1822) and his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1824).  He became the modern Pietistic apologist of Evangelical Christianity.  His theological position was orthodox, but laid more stress upon Christian experience than upon rigid dogmatic belief.  He was also one of the prominent members of the Evangelical Alliance, and few men were more widely known or more beloved throughout the Protestant churches of Europe and America than him. 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Carl-Maria-Von-Weber.jpg Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (11/18, 1786 – 6/4, 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.  Weber is known for his compositions for woodwind instruments, contributions to vocal and choral music, orchestration and his operas influenced the work of later opera composers.  Weber also wrote music journalism and was interested in folksong, and learned lithography to engrave his own works.

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQJxfFU200G-j-k_RqOABFYz7kr4JLFQUoOXE_u6MimZgqseRL_ Ludwig van Beethoven (12/17, 1770 – 3/26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist.  He is considered to have been the most crucial figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time.  When the first Reform temple in Vienna, the Seitstettengasse Synagogue, was about to be dedicated, the trustees in 1824 asked Beethoven to write a cantata for the dedication.  Ludwig eventually declined to do so, but it seems that he did spend some time studying Jewish traditional music.  He was represented as a master composer by the Nazis.
1827 "Wooden Heart” or “Muss i denn, muss i denn zum Städtele hinaus” German Folk Song 1827 –very rough Google translation: Because I must, I must because addition to the shtetl, the shtetl addition, And you, my darling stay here? If I come, when I come, if I wiedrum come, Return 'I one, my treasure with you. Can I be Allweil same net with you, Han I but my joy in you! If I come, when I come, if i wiedrum come, Return 'I one, my treasure with you. // How do you cry like you cry, That I must wander, wander must As if d 'love' would now 'over! Au are outside, are au outside The girls much, much lass, My darling, I remain loyal to you. Think you net when I 'ne see Andre', No be my 'love' over; Au are outside, are au outside The girls much, much lass, My darling, I remain loyal to you. // About's year's of years, If Träubele schneid't me, Träubele schneid't, Deputy 'I here Wed wiedrum one; Then I am, I am then Your Schätzele still Schätzele still So shall the wedding. About's past year do is my 'time, Since g'hör 'i mine and yours; Then I am, I am then Your Schätzele still Schätzele still So shall the wedding.
1827: Sir Walter Scott publishes his nine volume set, “The life of Napoleon” and in v.2 states that the French Revolution was planned by the Illuminati and financed by the money changers of Europe (The Rothschilds).
The Second Great Awakening was a Christian revival movement began around 1800, with momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870.  The Awakening expressed Arminian theology, by which every person could be saved through revivals.  It enrolled millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations.  Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age.  The Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.  The Second Great Awakening was strongest in the western states, following the revival at Cane Ridge in Kentucky.  New denominations included several major religious denominations, groups, and societies including Seventh-day Adventists, Church of Christ, Disciples of Christ, and the Latter Day Saint movement.  The abolition movement emerged in the North from the wider Awakening 1800-1840.
http://www.i4m.com/think/jpeg/joseph-smith-photograph.jpg Joseph Smith, Jr. (12/23, 1805 – 6/27, 1844) was the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement.  Beginning in 1827, Smith gathered a religious following after announcing that an angel had given him a set of golden plates describing the religious history of certain indigenous peoples of the Americas.  The plates disappeared.  In 1830, Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates as the Book of Mormon and organized the first Latter Day Saint church, claiming it to be a restoration of Early Christianity, from which other churches had fallen away.  The Book of Mormon has many long passages plagiarized from the King James Version.  The Book of Abraham is another hoax that Smith wrote.   Smith was a freemason and many elements of masonry are within Mormonism including the apron over the genitals at death.  During life, there are religious undergarments for both men and women.  The first five prophets were open Freemasons.  Joseph Smith had himself crowned king over America which added to the reasons for him being shot.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSSXidYzmkz2wQe-QHhOrhy6p2hjHY8V5-RlKdHzwTZTlLxc5un Mormons and Jews ****Mormonism is also the Latter Day Saint movement.  The term Mormonism derived from the Book of Mormon, which Joseph Smith, Jr. discovered on golden plates.  LDS also uses Doctrine and Covenants. Beliefs include baptism for the dead and every male eventually becomes the god of his own planet.  Mormons believe there are three degrees of heaven. The lowest is the Telestial Kingdom, which resembles earth in its fallen state.  Secondly is the Terrestrial Kingdom, where good people of all faiths go and also where mediocre Mormons go.  It is like the Garden of Eden, a perfect world.  Finally, there is the Celestial Kingdom, where Mormons who are true and faithful to all their covenants will enter into the presence of Heavenly Father and ultimately become gods and goddesses of their own planets and have an “eternal increase of seed” - meaning having billions of spirit babies with which to populate their planet. It is the lofty goal of every devout Mormon to achieve the third Kingdom and become a god.  They believe that Jesus and Satan were brothers.
Mormonism has many Masonic influences and is very philo-Judaic.  Founder Joseph Smith Jr. was a Judeophile who in the earliest days of Mormonism taught that the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and the Polynesian Islands were members of some of the Lost Tribes of Israel (Lamanites).  There were concurrently a couple of histories stating the same, since debunked.  Negroes were under the curse of Ham until 1978 when the LDS church was threatened with getting their religious tax-exemption denied.  Polygamy was also changed to conform with US law.  There are still LDS fundamentalists who adhere to this practice. 
Mormon theology of being the Chosen people and others are Gentiles, worthy only of servanthood, is similar to Judaism.
The Mormon affinity for Judaism is expressed by the many references to Judaism in the Mormon liturgy.  According to LDS Church general authority Monte J. Brough, "Mormons who baptized 380,000 Holocaust victims posthumously were motivated by love and compassion and did not understand their gesture might offend Jews ... they did not realize that what they intended as a 'Christian act of service' was 'misguided and insensitive.'”  In Mormonism, all Latter Day Saints are viewed as covenant, or chosen, people.  In contrast to traditional Christian supersessionism, Latter Day Saints do not dispute the "chosen" status of the Jewish people.  Mormon eschatology holds that Jews, as a chosen people, will ultimately accept Christianity (See Jeremiah 31:31-34).  Most practicing LDS members receive a patriarchal blessing that reveals their lineage in the House of Israel.  This lineage may be blood related or through "adoption;" therefore, a child may not necessarily share the lineage of her parents (but will still be a member of the tribes of Israel).  It is a widely held belief that most members of the faith are in the tribe of Ephraim or the tribe of Manasseh.
The “White Horse Prophecy” is when the Constitution is in dire peril, one will come who is mighty and strong.  This priesthood elder would somehow seize control of the US government to prevent the total abrogation of the Constitution.  He would assume total power and create an LDS “Kingdom” in America.  Today, 2012, a disproportionate number of FBI agents, CIA agents, State Department people and other government officials are loyal LDS.  At one time, three of the Joint Chiefs of Staff were loyal Mormons.
The Book of Mormon is said to have been given to Joseph Smith, by an Angel on golden tablets.  With the books he found two objects called the Urim and Thummim which he described as a pair of crystals joined in the form of a large pair of spectacles.  Unfortunately, after Smith finished his translation, he had to return the tablets to the Angel, so there is no physical evidence that they ever existed.
The most compelling proof that Joseph Smith was perpetuating a fraud is the Book of Abraham.  In 1835 Smith was able to use his Urim and Thummim to translate some Egyptian scrolls that he was given access to (at that time no one could read hieroglyphics).  Upon inspection, Smith declared that they contained the Book of Abraham.  He promptly translated the lot and it was accepted as scripture by the church.  The scrolls vanished and everyone thought the story would end there.  But it didn’t – in 1966 the original scrolls were found in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.  The scrolls turned out to be a standard Egyptian text that was often buried with the dead. To this day the Book of Abraham is a source of discomfort for the Mormon religion.  The Book of Abraham and Book of Mormon are yet other examples of how many are fooled, even ‘scientific minds’ with bias for professional reputations.  One day the silly Jewish exaggerations of the Holocaust will be obliterated.

David Paul Drach, who became Paul-Louis-Bernard Drach after his baptism, also called "the Chevalier Drach" (3/6, 1791 - January 1868 ) was a French Rabbi who converted to Catholicism.  He was librarian of the Congregation for the Propaganda of the Faith in Rome.  This ex-Grand Rabbi of Strasburg, published a Deuxième lettre d'un rabbin converti (Second letter from a rabbi converted), Paris, 1827.  On page 7 he said: "The zeal of these Rabbis goes as far as dedicating to death all those who follow the doctrine of the Trinity, and consequently all Christian Israelites."

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSA-xdHDCX35xe9l6FfDhktvSL94u1R6jXC1mx8o8ofMrRldX69vg Noah Webster (10/16, 1758 – 5/28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education." His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of children in the United States how to spell and read, and made their education more secular and less religious. In the U.S. his name became synonymous with "dictionary," especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language.  “Almost all the civil liberty now enjoyed in the world owes its origin to the principles of the Christian religion…The religion which has introduced civil liberty is the religion of Christ…and to this we owe our free constitution of government.”
Leandro Fernández de Moratín (3/10, 1760 – 6/21, 1828) was a Spanish dramatist, translator and neoclassical poet.  “Their expressions, their beards, their posture, their loathsome activities, the dismal voice with which they accost you, all bespeak bad faith, greed, buying low and selling high.  There is nothing they will not buy nor sell, nothing with which they do not deceive those who trade with them.  This is their function in life: to swindle, to lie.  It is what they do in Bayonne and in the country of Avignon, as well as those who are scattered across the rest of Europe...” (Obras postumas)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Franz_Schubert_by_Wilhelm_August_Rieder_1875.jpg/210px-Franz_Schubert_by_Wilhelm_August_Rieder_1875.jpg Franz Peter Schubert (1/31, 1797 – 11/19, 1828) was an Austrian composer.  Schubert was a prolific composer, writing some 600 Lieder, nine symphonies (including the famous "Unfinished Symphony"), liturgical music, operas, some incidental music and a large body of chamber and solo piano music.  Franz Liszt, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn, among others, discovered and championed his works in the 19th century.  Today, Schubert is seen as one of the leading exponents of the early Romantic era in music and he remains one of the most frequently performed composers.

1828 Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus (9/1, 1761 – 8/10, 1851) was a German theologian was known as a rationalist who offered natural explanations for the biblical miracles of Jesus.  As a Lutheran in the Age of Enlightenment, he firmly believed in the autonomy of the individual and freedom of the individual (through reason) from the dogma of the church.  Charges of anti-Semitism have been leveled at Paulus for his advocacy of assimilation of Jewish people into German culture.  In his published pamphlet "The Jewish National Separation: Its Origin, Consequences, and the Means of its Correction." he argued that "Jews were a nation apart, and would remain so as long as they were committed to their religion, whose basic intent and purpose were to preserve them in that condition. In a country that was not their own, therefore, Jews could not claim more than the bare protection of their lives and possessions.  They might certainly not claim political equality."
Joseph Wolff (1795 – 5/2, 1862), Jewish Christian missionary, travelled widely, and was known as the Eccentric Missionary.  His father became rabbi at Württemberg in 1806, and sent his son to the Protestant lyceum at Stuttgart.  He was converted to Christianity through reading the books of Bishop Johann Michael von Sailer, bishop of Regensburg, and was baptized in 1812 by the Benedictine abbot of Emaus, near Prague.  In his writings the following story is told of his early conviction that Jesus is the Messiah:  “When only seven years old, he was boasting to an aged Christian neighbor of the future triumph of Israel at the advent of the Messiah, when the old man said kindly, “Dear boy, I will tell you who the real Messiah was: he was Jesus of Nazareth, whom your ancestors crucified, as they slew the prophets of old. Go home and read the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah, and you will be convinced that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.”  Conviction at once fastened upon him.  He went home and read the scripture, wondering to see how perfectly it had been fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth. Were the words of the Christian true? The boy asked of his father an explanation of the prophecy, but was met with a silence so stern that he never again dared to refer to the subject.  This however only increased his desire to know more of the Christian religion.” [This reminds me, Jews skip over Isaiah 53!]
In 1828 Wolff set out to search for the Lost Tribes of Israel, travelling through Anatolia, Armenia, Turkestan and Afghanistan to Simla and Calcutta, suffering many hardships but preaching with enthusiasm.  He visited Madras, Pondicherry, Tinnevelly, Goa and Bombay, travelling home by Egypt and Malta.  In his travels in Bokhara he found the doctrine of the Lord’s soon coming held by a remote and isolated people.  The Arabs of Yemen, he says, “are in possession of a book called ‘Seera,’ which gives notice of the coming of Christ and His reign in glory, and they expect great events to take place in the year 1840.” “In Yemen I spent six days with the Rechabites. They drink no wine, plant no vineyards, sow no seed, live in tents, and remember the words of Jonadab, the son of Rechab. With them were the children of Israel of the tribe of Dan, . . . who expect, in common with the children of Rechab, the speedy arrival of the Messiah in the clouds of heaven.”
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSwZOpB8CRfz2WFLFPqJkK02kQPtf74iMz2uwhvfcL4wa5ZTiKeGw&t=1 Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.  A polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s, his political ambition combined with widening political participation, shaping the modern Democratic Party.  His legacy is now seen as mixed, as a protector of popular democracy and individual liberty for white men, checkered by his support for Indian removal and slavery. Renowned for his toughness, he was nicknamed “Old Hickory."  As he based his career in developing Tennessee, Jackson was the first president primarily associated with the American frontier.  Following Jefferson, Jackson supported an "agricultural republic" and felt the Bank improved the fortunes of an "elite circle" of commercial and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of farmers and laborers.  After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the Bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.  In 1835, President Andrew Jackson declared his disdain for the international bankers:   "You are a den of vipers. I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God I will rout you out. If the people only understood the rank injustice of our money and banking system, there would be a revolution before morning."  There followed an (unsuccessful) assassination attempt on President Jackson's life.  Jackson had told his vice president, Martin Van Buren, "The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me...."
Pope Pius VIII.PNG Pius VIII #253         served from 3/31, 1829–12/1, 1830 Accepted Louis Philippe I as King of the French.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Friederich_von_Schlegel.jpg/220px-Friederich_von_Schlegel.jpg Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (later: von) Schlegel (3/10, 1772 – 1/12, 1829) was a German poet, critic and scholar.  A permanent place in the history of German literature belongs to Friedrich Schlegel and his brother August Wilhelm as the critical leaders of the Romantic school, which derived from them most of its governing ideas as to the characteristics of the Middle Ages, and as to the methods of literary expression.
Excerpt from the 1829 book by John Nimmo: Identity of the Religions Called Druidical and Hebrew Demonstrated from the Nature and Objects of Their Worship which was written to prove the link between Judaism and Druidism.: "Their conceptions of the Deity are exhibited, and, shewn to be alike. Both cultivated grove worship and adored the oak; the temples of both where of a circular form, raising up lithoi were common to both; cairn or vestal fire where lighted, with similar intentions, in Judea and in Britain; Bel, Moloch, the serpent, and bull, were, equally, adored by both; both were believers in magic, and in the magical incantation of teraphim. The Jew and Druid, equally, believed in metempsychosis, offered human and other sacrifices, buried their dead and measured time in the same manner., their hierarchy existed exactly alike both in the East and west. From this arguments, the near relation of the Hebrew and Druidical religions is proved."




1830         1830         1830         1830  
April 5, 1830 -Thomas Macaulay spoke in favor of the bill for the Removal of Jewish Disabilities.  Alluding to Nathan Rothschild (who had financed the Allied armies ranged against Napoleon), he noted that "as things now stand, a Jew may be the richest man in England.... The influence of a Jew may be of the first consequences in a war which shakes Europe to the centre," and yet the Jews have no legal right to vote or to sit in Parliament.  "Three hundred years ago they had no legal right to the teeth in their heads." (King John had extracted gold teeth from Jewish heads.)  Thomas Carlyle, standing in front of Rothschild's great house at Hyde Park Corner, exclaimed: "I do not mean that I want King John back again, but if you ask me which mode of treating these people to have been nearest to the will of the Almighty about them--to build them palaces like that, or to take the pincers for them, I declare for the pincers."  Carlyle even fancied himself in the role of a Victorian King John, with Baron Rothschild at his mercy: "Now, Sir, the State requires some of these millions you have heaped together with your financing work.  'You won't? Very well'--and the speaker gave a twist with his wrist--'Now will you?'--and then another twist till the millions were yielded."
****Young Germany was a group of German writers which existed from about 1830 to 1848. It was essentially a youth ideology (similar to those that had swept France, Ireland and originated in Italy).  Its main proponents were Karl Gutzkow, Heinrich Laube, Theodor Mundt and Ludolf Wienbarg; Heinrich Heine, Ludwig Börne and Georg Büchner were also considered part of the movement.  The wider group included Willibald Alexis, Adolf Glassbrenner, Gustav Kühne, Max Waldau and Georg Herwegh.
Against the dominant spirit of absolutism in politics and obscurantism in religion, the writers of Young Germany maintained the principles of democracy, socialism, and rationalism.  Among the many things they advocated were: separation of church and state, the emancipation of the Jews, and the raising of the political and social position of women.  They were heavily influenced by Jews Heine and Ludwig Borne.
Christian Ludolf Wienbarg (12/25, 1802 – 1/8, 1872) was a German journalist and literary critic, one of the founders of the Young Germany movement during the Vormärz period.
Heinrich Laube (9/18, 1806 – 8/1, 1884), German dramatist, novelist and theatre-director, was born at Sprottau in Prussian Silesia.
Theodor Mundt (9/19, 1808 – 11/30, 1861) was a German critic and novelist. He was a member of the Young Germany group of German writers.
Gregory XVI.jpg Gregory XVI, #254 Served from 2/2, 1831–6/1, 1846 Member of the Camaldolese Order.  The last non-bishop to be elected.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTr6dxU7toTmZ30EDTy8eY5VP3sJM3UMcYT04yIV2r6Z8b7YKr1 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Prince de Bénévente (2/2, 1754–5/17, 1838) was a French diplomat.  He worked successfully from the regime of Louis XVI, through the French Revolution and then under Napoleon I, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis-Philippe. Known since the turn of the 19th century simply by the name Talleyrand, he remains a figure that polarizes opinion.  Some regard him as one of the most versatile, skilled and influential diplomats in European history, and some believe that he was a traitor, betraying in turn, the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Restoration.  Louis Goldsmith, the arch-spy, who put Tallyrand in possession of the secrets of all the Cabinets of Europe was a Jew.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ-cG1MngVlXBkNuSWJRxoqJBh6bTC7oTrbcGvsW3KA1zc-cDydhw Honoré de Balzac (5/20, 1799 – 8/18, 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.  His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the fall of Napoleon I in 1815.  Due to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature.  Balzac has over 30 Jewish characters in his opus with most fitting Jewish stereotypes, such as the Jew Banker who thrives off the ruin of others.  Gobsec, in the novel of that name is a Jewish businessman of near demoniacal power, who knows all the secret pushbuttons of greed and weakness in poor, stumbling mankind (as depicted by Balzac).  He and the title figure of Maison de Nucingen (usually interpreted as Rothschild) see money as a form of abstract power and concentrated energy that they can wield like a quasi-magical instrument.  As Gobsec observes at one point: "There are dozens of us in Paris, all silent and unknown kings, the arbiters of your destiny."  Balzac also said this: “Behind every fortune lies a crime.”; “World history: There are two world histories. One is the official and full of lies, destined to be taught in schools – the other is the secret history, which harbors the true causes and occurrences.”
~1830 Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (1/12, 1780 – 6/16, 1849), was a German theologian.    De Wette has been described by Julius Wellhausen as "the epoch-making opener of the historical criticism of the Pentateuch."  He prepared the way for the Supplement-theory. He believed that Judaism was degenerated Hebraism.
The Rothschilds finance the establishment of the nation of Belgium, which secedes from the Netherlands.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4F1wqEWxlkpb1HVcbP6kn7_MICNpXpBpkfMcOpxYq2ySU59er ****Ivy League -  Seven of the Ivy League schools are older than the American Revolution; Cornell was founded just after the American Civil War.  Some of the Ivy League schools have identifiable Protestant roots, while others were founded as nonsectarian schools.  Church of England King's College broke up during the Revolution and was reformed as public nonsectarian Columbia College.  In the early nineteenth century, the specific purpose of training Calvinist ministers was handed off to theological seminaries, but a denominational tone and such relics as compulsory chapel often lasted well into the twentieth century.  Penn and Brown were officially founded as nonsectarian schools.  Brown's charter promised no religious tests and "full liberty of conscience", but placed control in the hands of a board of twenty-two Baptists, five Quakers, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians.  Cornell has been strongly nonsectarian from its founding. 
"Ivy League" is sometimes used as a way of referring to an elite class.  Several were formed to trained ministers and often had high entrance exams of knowing Greek, Hebrew, Latin.  Several allowed freshmen of age 14.
1. Harvard University 1636 as New College; Calvinist (specifically Congregationalist puritans).  Motto: (Truth)
2. Yale University 1701 as Collegiate School; Calvinist (Congregationalists).  Motto: (Light and truth)
3. University of Pennsylvania 1740 as Church and Charity School of Philadelphia; Nonsectarian, but founded by Church of England members.  Motto: (Laws without morals are useless)
4. Princeton University 1746 as College of New Jersey; Nonsectarian, but founded by Calvinists (Presbyterians).  Motto: (Under God's power she flourishes)
5. Columbia University 1754 as King's College; Church of England.  Motto: (In Thy light shall we see the light)
6. Brown University 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; Baptist, but founding charter promises "no religious tests" and "full liberty of conscience".  Motto: (In God We Hope)
7. Dartmouth College 1769; Calvinist (Congregationalist).  Motto: (The voice of one crying in the wilderness)
8. Cornell University 1865; Nonsectarian.  Motto: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”
Fraternities and sororities (from the Latin words frater and soror, meaning "brother" and "sister" respectively) are fraternal social organizations for undergraduate students.
The Phi Beta Kappa Society, founded on 5 December 1776, at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, is generally recognized as the first Greek-letter student society in North America.   As a curious side effect of anti-masonic controversy in the early Republic, the secrets of Phi Beta Kappa were published in the appendix to a book in 1831.  After that time, Phi Beta Kappa ceased to be a social fraternity in any real sense and is now only an honorary society, though prominent and respected.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRqQ-hxsnckdjJ-z3b0Fju1oMfoyYMYD3JwC45FD16cvPWGtG4Z Skull and Bones is a secret society at Yale University founded in 1832 after a dispute among Yale's debating societies.   President William Howard Taft, President George H. W. Bush, his son, President George W. Bush, and the latter's 2004 Presidential opponent, Senator John Kerry, and many powerhouses have been members.  It is said that one freshman rite is to lay in a coffin and recite one’s sexual history.  The powerful often have blackmail on one another.  Like any society, traditions and type of membership may change through its history.

Which came first? Perhaps Zionism was created by the Jesuits to get Protestant criticism off of the Papacy, but then adopted by Jews after the European Christian community evolved from relating to Religious Identity into Nations, leaving Jews desiring their own nation as well.
****Christian Futurism:   Jewish leaders had long ago recognized the bonanza for them if they could force the teaching of an imminent rapture on the Christians and move them to abandon their moral hold on society.  Secondly, the Zionists were already working on capturing the land of Palestine and establishing the State of Israel.  They knew in advance that unless they had the backing of the Christian churches in the West it would not happen.  Therefore, Darby was financially supported by them and Untermeyer made sure that Scofield presented a teaching in which Jesus was coming back shortly but also that the Jews were to have their land restored to them.  This was the birth of Christian Zionism, which today is dominating the Christian churches in Western Europe and North America.
Through two Jesuit priests, Francisco Ribera (1537-1591), of Salamanca Spain, and Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), of Rome, Papacy put forth her Futurist interpretation.  In 1591 AD, the Jesuit Ribera invented a "futurist" view.  He claimed that Revelation would not be fulfilled until the end of the Christian Era.  Ribera taught a rebuilt Babylon, a rebuilt temple in Jerusalem and an end-time Antichrist, etc., etc.
3 Apostles of Futurism: Manuel Lacunza, Edward Irving and John Nelson Darby.  The Protestant Church was naming the Catholic Church and the Papacy, the Beast and the Antichrist.  The Jesuits secretly promoted these 3 authors to introduce the masses to the Futurist interpretation of the Antichrist.
Manuel De Lacunza, S.J. (1731-1801), a Jesuit from Chile, wrote a manuscript in Spanish titled (The Coming of the Messiah in Glory and Majesty), under the pen name of Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra about 1791.  Lacunza wrote under an assumed "Jewish" name to obscure the fact that he was a Catholic, in order to give his book better acceptance in Protestantism, his intended audience.  An advocate of Futurism, Lacunza was deliberately attempting to take the pressure off the papacy by proposing that the Antichrist was still far off in the future. His manuscript was published in London, Spain, Mexico and Paris between 1811 and 1826.
Edward Irving,  (1792-1834), (a Jesuit in disguise?), translated Lacunza's work from Spanish into English in a book entitled: The Coming of Messiah in Glory and Majesty with a Preliminary Discourse, published in London in 1827, by L. B. Seeley & Sons, which included Irving's own lengthy preface.
Prior to Darby, all Protestant Christians believed that the Pope was Antichrist. They believed that the great falling away happened soon after the end of the apostolic age and that the Papal dynasty answered in every way to the great apostasy or falling away predicted by the Apostle Paul.  And prior to Darby, Christians understood that the Jewish religion was a dead religion superceded by Christianity.
John Nelson Darby, (1800-1882), (another Jesuit in disguise?), is wrongly called the father of Futurism or Dispensationalism even though that system is usually attributed to him.  He was a prolific writer and traveled widely in Europe and the U.S. as an "evangelist" for Futurism.  His prophetic scheme was enthusiastically accepted in Great Britain, Canada and the U.S.
John Nelson Darby (11/18, 1800 – 4/29, 1882) was an Anglo-Irish evangelist, and an influential figure among the original Plymouth Brethren.  He is considered to be the father of modern Dispensationalism.  He produced a translation of the Bible based on the Hebrew and Greek texts called The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation from the Original Languages by J. N. Darby.  (This generation had an increase in Millenarianism and identification with Israel through British Israelism.  Also every idea he proposed had earlier been proposed by other ministers.)
He joined an interdenominational meeting of believers (including Anthony Norris Groves, Edward Cronin, J. G. Bellett, and Francis Hutchinson) who met to "break bread" together in Dublin as a symbol of their unity in Christ.  By 1832, this group had grown and began to identify themselves as a distinct Christian assembly.  As they traveled and began new assemblies in Ireland and England, they formed the movement now known as the Plymouth Brethren.
Darby traveled widely in Europe and Britain in the 1830s and 1840s, and established many Brethren assemblies.  He gave 11 significant lectures in Geneva in 1840 on “The Hope of the Church”.  These established his reputation as a leading interpreter of biblical prophecy.  The beliefs he disseminated then are still being propagated (in various forms) at such places as Dallas Theological Seminary and Bob Jones University and by authors and preachers such as Hal Lindsey and Tim LaHaye.  Darby is noted in the theological world as the father of "dispensationalism," later made popular in the United States by Cyrus Scofield's Reference Bible.  Charles Henry Mackintosh, 1820-1896, with his popular style spread Darby's teachings to humbler elements in society and may be regarded as the journalist of the Brethren Movement. CHM popularized Darby more than any other Brethren author.  Darby popularized these earlier thoughts of Lacunza and Irving among others, including the "secret rapture" theory wherein Christ will suddenly remove His bride, the Church, from this world before the judgments of the tribulation.  Dispensationalist beliefs about the fate of the Jews and the re-establishment of the Kingdom of Israel put dispensationalists at the forefront of Christian Zionism, because "God is able to graft them in again," and they believe that in His grace he will do so according to their understanding of Old Testament prophecy.  They believe that, while the ways of God may change, His purposes to bless Israel will never be forgotten, just as He has shown unmerited favor to the Church, He will do so to a remnant of Israel to fulfill all the promises made to the genetic seed of Abraham. (see 1877)
http://preservedwords.com/images/church-kingdom.gif
Classic Chart from Clarence Larkin

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT7KFE0kogO_bHirALmQfUgXn6lRze0LQG2_N4SmOsomCAfrYzfAA The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X of France, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc d'Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, the Bourbon Restoration, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the substitution of the principle of popular sovereignty for hereditary right. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis-Philippe Orleanists.
The revolution of July 1830 created a constitutional monarchy.  Charles X abdicated rather than become a limited monarch and departed for Great Britain. In his place Louis-Philippe of the House of Orléans was placed on the throne, and he agreed to rule as a constitutional monarch.  This period became known as the July Monarchy.  One month after the revolution, in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Belgian Revolution would commence, leading to the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.

“We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race.  To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.  I protest against such a union as that!  Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race....” -John Caldwell Calhoun (3/18, 1782–3/31, 1850) was a leading Senator and Vice-President and after 1830 he promoted states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade.  He is best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as something positive, his distrust of majoritarianism, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union.  Calhoun was one of the "Great Triumvirate" or the "Immortal Trio" of Congressional leaders, along with his Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.  In 1957, a Senate Committee selected Calhoun as one of the five greatest U.S. Senators, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Robert La Follette, and Robert Taft.
1830 “Theory of Judaism” by Abbe Louis Chiarini, professor of the oriental languages and antiquities in the University of Warsaw, tells of the pernicious nature of the Talmud.


1831         1831         1831         1831
Alfred Victor de Vigny (3/27 1797 – 9/17 1863) was a French poet, playwright, and novelist.  His play, La Mareschale d'Ancre (1831), draws on the Elijah Montalto scandal of the time of Marie de Medicis, in which Jews were accused of jockeying for power through use of Kabbalistic mysticism.
Barthold Georg Niebuhr (August 27, 1776 – January 2, 1831) was a Danish-German statesman and historian who became Germany's leading historian of ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography. Classical Rome (rather than Greece) caught the admiration of German thinkers.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSqWkemaygAbzLJweEVjCWwMvSm1ss9__0OzFOH7LmE5gs6teKDLA 1831  Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier and German military theorist who stressed the moral and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death.  Clausewitz espoused a romantic or Hegelian conception of warfare, stressing the dialectic of how opposite factors interact, and noting how unexpected new developments unfolding under the "fog of war" called for rapid decisions by alert commanders.  Clausewitz saw history as a complex check on abstractions that did not accord with experience.  In opposition to Antoine-Henri Jomini he argued war could not be quantified or graphed or reduced to mapwork and graphs.  Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is, "War is not merely a political act, but also a political instrument, a continuation of political relations, a carrying out of the same by other means," a working definition of war which has won wide acceptance.  Overall, he had proposed the idealized notion of "absolute war" and opposed it to "real war".  By "absolute war", Clausewitz meant a campaign to eradicate the enemy.  By "real war", Clausewitz meant a war to defang the enemy such that it no longer poses any threat.
http://www.umass.edu/wsp/images/ranke2.jpg Leopold von Ranke (12/21, 1795 – 5/23, 1886) was a German historian, considered one of the founders of modern source-based history. Ranke set the tone for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources (Empiricism), an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics.   Beginning with his first book in 1824, (History of the Latin and Teutonic Peoples from 1494 to 1514), Ranke used an unusually wide variety of sources for a historian of the age, including "memoirs, diaries, personal and formal missives, government documents, diplomatic dispatches and first-hand accounts of eye-witnesses".
Ranke showed the unity of the experiences of the "Teutonic" nations of Scandinavia, England and Germany and the "Latin" nations of Italy, Spain and France through the great "respirations" of the Völkerwanderung (great migration), the Crusades and colonization that in Ranke's view bound all of the nations together to produce modern European civilization.  Ranke argued that "every age is next to God," by which he meant that every period of history is unique and must be understood in its own context. He argued that God gazes over history in its totality and finds all periods equal.  Ranke rejected the teleological approach to history, by which each period is considered inferior to the period which follows.  Thus, the Middle Ages were not inferior to the Renaissance, simply different.  History was not to be an account of man's "progress" because, "After Plato, there can be no more Plato." For Ranke Christianity was morally most superior and could not be improved upon. In the 19th century, Ranke's work was very popular and his ideas about historical practise gradually became dominant in western historiography.  Ranke went on to write that the historian must seek the "Holy hieroglyph" that is God's hand in history, keeping an "eye for the universal" whilst taking "pleasure in the particular".
In his 1833 article "The Great Powers" and his 1836 article "Dialogue on Politics" Ranke claimed that every state is given a special moral character from God and individuals should strive to best fulfill the "idea" of their state.  Thus, in this way, Ranke urged his readers to stay loyal to the Prussian state and reject the ideas of the French Revolution, which Ranke claimed were meant for France, not Prussia.  In Ranke's view, the historian had to understand a period on its own terms, and seek to find only the general ideas which animated every period of history.  In 1976, “Leopold von Ranke and the Jewish Question” was written by Harry Allen Butowsky (Jew?).


Karl Ludwig Börne (5/6, 1786 – 2/12, 1837) was a German Jew political writer and satirist.  He was born Loeb Baruch at Frankfurt am Main, where his father, Jakob Baruch, carried on the business of a banker.  He received his early education at Gießen, but as Jews were ineligible at that time for public appointments in Frankfurt, young Baruch was sent to study medicine at Berlin under a physician, Markus Herz, in whose house he resided. Young Baruch became deeply enamored of his patron's wife, the talented and beautiful Henriette Herz (1764-1847), and gave vent to his adoration in a series of remarkable letters.  Tiring of medical science, which he had subsequently pursued at Halle, he studied constitutional law and political science at Heidelberg and Giessen, and in 1811 took his doctor's degree at the latter university.  In 1818 he became a convert to Lutheran Protestantism, changing his name from Lob Baruch to Ludwig Börne.  From 1818 to 1821 he edited Die Wage, a paper distinguished by its lively political articles and its powerful but sarcastic theatrical criticisms.  This paper was suppressed by the police authorities, and in 1821 Börne quit for a while the field of publicist writing and led a retired life in Paris, Hamburg and Frankfurt.  He supported the July Revolution (1830).
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR6u03C9r6VFNR2ICAl3PsFigiVOljaI5sJVuuKq5jTSph2e-2L James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo.  Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece.  "His 1831 novel The Bravo: A Tale depicts Jews as usurers whose shrewdness has enabled them to survive under oppression, but he hardly makes them likeable or sympathetic characters."
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4fH-_4DZZfDW-p4ZddnNqWrPZK52cVbYfUl0FCFXqxC93KoWtHnVBSFk Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (8/15, 1771 – 9/21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet.  “Hatred for the Jews appears to infect both the Saxons and the Normans, from the noblest to the lowest.  The servant seems to disdain the fact that a Jew has called at Cedric’s gate; later the servants ignore him, and the Moslem slaves, belonging to the Normans, curl their whiskers in anger.  Cedric himself makes Isaac sit at a separate table for dinner, as far as possible away from the high table.  The Normans cross themselves in horror at his presence amongst them. Only Ivanhoe, disguised as the Palmer, welcomes Isaac.   Isaac’s reference to the unfair tax imposed by the Exchequer upon the Jews reveals some historical truth about England’s reaction to Jewish moneylenders.  The Church of England forbade Christians to lend money at interest, so the Jews greedily extorted money at unusually high rates of interest.  Isaac talks too much about his money and at the same time whines as if he has none.”(Anonymous about Scott)  In 1827 Sir Walter Scott publishes his nine volume set, “The Life of Napoleon,” and in volume two he states that the French Revolution was planned by the, “Illuminati,” and financed by the money changers of Europe.  “After all, it is hard that the vagabond stock-jobbing Jews should, for their own purposes, make such a stroke of credit as now exists in London, and menace the credit of men trading on sure funds like Hurst and Robinson. It is just like a set of pickpockets who raise a mob, in which honest folks are knocked down and plundered, that they may pillage safely in the midst of the confusion they have excited.” (Diary, November 25, 1825)  His “Ivanhoe” has a Jewish heroine who outshines her Christian rival.  (Remember The Scots had less social intercourse with Jews.)  Ivanhoe is a historical fiction novel by Sir Walter Scott published in 1820, and set in 12th-century England.  Ivanhoe is sometimes credited for increasing interest in Romanticism and Medievalism.
anti-semitism cartoons, anti-semitism cartoon, anti-semitism picture, anti-semitism pictures, anti-semitism image, anti-semitism images, anti-semitism illustration, anti-semitism illustrations1832 - A Gentleman in Difficulties: Lord John: “It’s impossible for our House to let you have that little matter now.  But you can have a Bill payable next Session, if you like.”
anti-semitism cartoons, anti-semitism cartoon, anti-semitism picture, anti-semitism pictures, anti-semitism image, anti-semitism images, anti-semitism illustration, anti-semitism illustrationsLord H “After all’s said and done, you exist only in sufferance, you know.” Right Honorable D “Sufferance, my dear Huntington! ‘For sufferance is the badge of all our tribe.’”-Merchant of Venice



1833         1833         1833         1833
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSwZOpB8CRfz2WFLFPqJkK02kQPtf74iMz2uwhvfcL4wa5ZTiKeGw&t=1 Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837).
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQBQn38fPPhqhWAPR2NxOZ9KmO6M-uOFrJbsuvsy-osxEt9X6TY William Makepeace Thackeray (7/18 1811 – 12/24 1863) was an English novelist.  He was famous for his satirical works, particularly “Vanity Fair”, a panoramic portrait of English society.  “Here's the pillar of 'Change!' Nathan Rothschild himself, With whose fame every bourse in the universe rings; The first Baron Juif; by the grace of his pelf, Not 'The King of the Jews,' but the Jew of the kings.  The great incarnation of cents and consols, The eights, halves and quarters, scrip, options and shares; Who plays with new Kings as young Missus with dolls; The monarch undoubted of bulls and of bears!  O, Plutus, your graces are queerly bestowed! Else sure we should think you behaved infra dig! When with favors surpassing, it joyed you to load, A greasy-faced compound of donkey and pig.  Here, just as he stands with his head pointed thus, At full-length, gentle reader, we lay him before ye; And we then leave the Jew (what we wish he'd leave us, But we fear to no purpose) alone in his glory.”  This was published alongside an ugly caricature of the great financier in a magazine of May 18, 1833. It is typical of Thackeray's many comments on the Jews.  The satirical burlesque, Rebecca and Rowena and Codlingsby are travesties of familiar Jewish characters in Sir Walter Scott and Benjamin Disraeli novels.  Codlingsby, in addition, suggests a worldwide Jewish banking-political conspiracy.  Thackeray's account of his trip to Palestine (From Cornhill to Cairo) continues his remarks against Zionist scheming.
An Elephant for Sale "Look at them with their hooked beaks," Becky said, getting into the buggy, her picture under her arm, in great glee. "They're like vultures after a battle." Vanity Fair Thackeray 1833

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church Anglicans, eventually developing into Anglo-Catholicism.  The movement argued for the reinstatement of lost Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology.  They conceived of the Anglican Church as one of three branches of the Catholic Church.- Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican.  It was also known as the Tractarian Movement for publications between 1833 and 1841.  Two prominent Tractarians were John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Hurrell Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams and William Palmer.
12092743664592745764.JPG 1833 Jew emancipation, English. 

                                                                             
1835       1835       1835       1835                  
(Wilhelm)Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (6/22, 1767 – 4/8, 1835) was a German philosopher, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of Humboldt Universität.  He is especially remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language and to the theory and practice of education.  In particular, he is widely recognized as having been the architect of the Prussian education system which was used as a model for education systems in countries such as the United States and Japan.  -“I love the Jew really only en masse; en detail I strictly avoid him.”
Johann Ludwig Tieck (5/31, 1773 – 4/28, 1853) was a German poet, translator, editor, novelist, writer of Novellen, and critic, who was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.  In 1835, “(Jews) are a foreign element in the State; in German letters, where they have been dominant since Rahel, Heine and Borne, their influence has been more harmful than beneficial.”
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt (9/14, 1769 – 5/6, 1859) was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography was the foundation of the field of biogeography.  Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt traveled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view.  He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined (South America and Africa in particular).  His five-volume work, Kosmos (1845), attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge.  He was of the Enlightenment and petitioned for full freedom of religious opinion, and the admission of Jews to civil offices.
William Cobbett (3/9, 1763 – 6/18, 1835) was an English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, who was born in Farnham, Surrey. He believed that reforming Parliament and abolishing the rotten boroughs would help to end the poverty of farm laborers, and he attacked the borough-mongers, sinecurists and "tax-eaters" relentlessly.  “[The Reformation] changed England from being the happiest country, perhaps, that the world had ever seen into a land the main body of whose people were poor and miserable, with Jews and paper-money makers the real owners of a large part of it...  With the foundation of the Bank of England in 1694, there arose loans, funds, banks, bankers, bank notes, and a national debt; things that England had never heard or dreamed of before this war [with France] 'for preserving the Protestant religion by law established'; things without which she had a long and glorious career of many centuries [i.e., while the Jews were expelled] and had been the greatest and happiest country in the world... Seeing that to lend money at interest, that is to say, for gain. . . was contrary and still is contrary to the principles of the Catholic Church... The Jews did it, but then Jews were regarded as a sort of monsters, who professed to be the lineal descendants and to hold the opinions of those who had murdered the Son of God and the Saviour of men.  They were not permitted to practice their blasphemies openly. In degraded wretches like these, usury was tolerated just for the same cause that incest is tolerated amongst dogs. .. The people looked back with aching hearts to former happy days, and the nobility and gentry began to perceive with shame and fear that already their estates were beginning to pass quietly from them (as Swift had told them they would)  into the hands of the Jews, Quakers, and other moneychangers created by the 'no-popery' war. But it was now too late to look back.” (The Protestant Reformation)
“Suppose it was proposed to us to admit a race of cannibals to these powers, should we have a right to do it?  Jew has always been synonymous with sharper, cheat rogue. This has been the case with no other race of mankind.” (Reply to the House of Commons Bill for the Emancipation of the Jews. 1833. The Cobbett MSS.)  An incredibly prolific journalist and populist agitator, Cobbett relentlessly attacked financial and political crooks -Jewish and 'Goy' - of England and America, and even spent time in English dungeons for his pains.  He was the first publicist of consequence to expose the legalized thievery of the Bank of England (still going on - as in every other country with a so-called central bank). He pointed out the heavy Jewish role in that institution in his “Paper Against Gold”.  He was also a pioneer conservationist and the first journalist to take up what is now called the ecological issue.  His periodicals were Cobbett's Political Register, The Rush Light, and Porcupine's Gazette.  “Cottage Economy” is still a classic of return-to-nature literature.
1/30/1835  An assassin tries to shoot President Jackson, but miraculously both of the assassin’s pistols misfire.  President Jackson later claims that he knew the Rothschilds’ were responsible for that attempted assassination.  He is not the only one.  Indeed, even the assassin, Richard Lawrence, who was found not guilty by reason of insanity, later brags that powerful people in Europe had hired him and promised to protect him if he were caught.
1835 David Friedrich Strauss (or Strauß) (1/27, 1808– 2/8, 1874) was a German theologian and writer.  He scandalized Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus," whose divine nature he denied.  His work was connected to the Tübingen School, which revolutionized study of the New Testament, early Christianity, and ancient religions.  Strauss was a pioneer in the historical investigation of Jesus.  Strauss's (The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined) was a sensation.  Carl August von Eschenmayer wrote a review in 1835 called "The Iscariotism of our days" (a review which Strauss characterised as 'the offspring of the legitimate marriage between theological ignorance and religious intolerance, blessed by a sleep-walking philosophy').
Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet (11/22, 1797 – 7/18, 1873) fought for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom.  He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London in 1835 and Lord Mayor of London in 1855, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.
1828, 1836 book, A Resident in Constantinople, by an Hasidic rabbi who converted to Christianity and became a Greek Orthodox monk, and revealed how Hasidic Jews ritually murder Christians.: “When I was thirteen years old, my father revealed to me the mystery of the blood, and cursed me by all the elements of heaven and earth, if ever I should divulge the secret, even to my brethren ; and when I was married, and should even have ten sons, I should not discover it to all, but only to one, who should be the most prudent and learned, and at the same time firm and unmoved in the faith ; but to a female I should never disclose it on any account. May the earth, he said, never receive thee, if thou revealest these secrets. So said my father ; but I, since I have taken as my father the Lord Jesus Christ, will proclaim the truth in every place, and, as the wise Sirac says, even unto death strive for the truth. ' " pp. 13-15.

http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQAkVAc3QCt5S8Wd5vTK2Tvu2eDIgbNZWx0GOI1JshLP3mk1cwo The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution.  Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas). All but two of the Texian defenders were killed.  Santa Anna's perceived cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army.  Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution.
1836: Jackson succeeds in closing the Rothschilds’ central bank, when the bank's charter is not renewed. In 1913 that the Rothschilds began the Central Bank called the Federal Reserve.
Karl Leberecht Immermann (4/24, 1796 – 8/25, 1840) was a German dramatist and novelist.  His masterpiece is the poetic mystery, Merlin (1831), a noble poem, which, like its model, Faust, deals with the deeper problems of modern spiritual life.  He stands between Romanticism and modern literature; his Epigonen (1836) might be described as one of the last Romantic imitations of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, while the satire and realism of his second novel, Münchhausen (1838), form a complete break with the older literature.  As a prose-writer Immermann is perhaps best remembered to-day by the admirable story of village life, The Lord High, which is embedded in the formless mass of Münchhausen. His last work was an unfinished epic, Tristan und Isolde (1840).  In “Epigonen” he describes a Jew “disguised as a German: the frank countenance is only a mask, the blond hair-a wig!”  “The Jew remains Jewish and the Christian must be specially on his guard particularly when he seems pleasant.  They are all freed slaves, humble and crawling when they want to get something, haughty when they have attained it.”
William Godwin (3/3, 1756 – 4/7, 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism, and one of the first modern proponents of anarchism.  St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century (1799) - The novel takes place during the Protestant Reformation and tells the tale of a penurious noble who finds the philosopher's stone and an elixir of immortality. Unbounded wealth and immortality become the cause of St. Leon's downfall, turning him into a solitary loner, far removed from society.  The isolated Jew symbolized as black magician.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRhBsOl2wQatLU8BgMGqz0QmA05htA74M3syosqF9fAcyRsy7em-zdyUnXK_Q McGuffey Readers were a series of graded primers.  It is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960.  The McGuffey Readers dealt with the natural curiosity of children; emphasized work and an independent spirit; encouraged an allegiance to country, and an understanding of the importance of religious values. The Readers were filled with stories of strength, character, goodness and truth. The books presented a variety of contrasting viewpoints on many issues and topics, and drew moral conclusions about lying, stealing, cheating, poverty, teasing, alcohol, overeating, skipping school, and foul language.  The books taught children to seek an education and to continue to learn throughout their lives.  There are numerous references to Shylock, and to Jews attacking Jesus and Paul.  A line from the Eclectic Third Reader warns students about the perils of rejecting Christianity.  "It will cost something to be a Christian: it will cost more not to be so."  In the same Reader, Christianity is championed as the only dependable religion. "There are no principles but those of CHRISTIANITY, to be depended upon in cases of REAL DISTRESS." (Emphasis in original)  Jewish veneration of the Scriptures is denigrated.  "The Old Testament has been preserved by the Jews in every age, with a scrupulous jealousy, and with a veneration for its words and letters, bordering on superstition..."  McGuffey suggests that the rise of Christianity was not only predicted in the Old Testament, but was a result of Jewish infidelity toward God.  The Reader mentions "...the Jews as the keepers of the Old Testament."  Then, "It was their own sacred volume, which contained the most extraordinary predictions concerning the infidelity of their nation, and the rise, progress, and extensive prevalence of Christianity."  "The morality taught by Jesus Christ was purer, sounder, sublimer, and more perfect than had ever before entered into the imagination, or proceeded from the lips of man."  In Lesson XVIII, dealing with Divine inspiration of the Gospel, the Eclectic Fourth Reader asks, "Why is it inconceivable that the book is fiction?"  The answer, "The Jewish authors were incapable of the diction, and strangers to the morality, contained in the gospel..."  A short story called "The Blind Preacher," recounts a blind minister's sermon about the trial and crucifixion of Jesus.  The story reinforces the notion that Jews are responsible for the death of Jesus.  "We saw the very faces of the Jews, the staring, frightful distortions of malice and rage."  McGuffey: "The Christian religion is the religion of our country. From it are derived our notions on the character of God, on the great moral Governor of the universe.  On its doctrines are founded the peculiarities of our free institutions.  From no source has the author drawn more conspicuously than from the sacred Scriptures.  From all these extracts from the Bible I make no apology."
1837 “Alle Jahre wieder” (Every Year Again) is a German Christmas Carol.:  Comes the Christ Child Down to earth Where we humans are. / Stops with his blessing At every house Walks on all paths With us in and out. / Stands also at my side Quietly and unrecognized To guide me loyally By the dear hand.
"Lasst uns froh und munter sein", ("Let us be happy and cheerful") is a traditional German Christmas Carol from the Hunsrück/Taunus region.  1) Let us be happy and cheerful And rejoice in the Lord! Jolly, jolly, tralera-lera, Soon Nicholas Eve is here! Soon Nicholas Eve is here! / 2)When at last the school day ends, Home I'll go with all my friends. Jolly, jolly, ... / 3)Then I put the plate out Nick'll surely put somethin' on it. Jolly, jolly, ... /  4)  When I sleep then I dream: Now Nicholas brings me something. Jolly, jolly, ... / 5)  When I rise (in the morning) I dash quickly to the plate. Jolly, jolly, ... / 6)  Nicholas is a good man Whom we can't thank enough. Jolly, jolly, ...
 “O du fröhliche” is a German Christmas Carol from before 1826. (Original) Literal translation: O (you) joyful, O (you) blessed, (O you) graceful Christmas time! The world was lost, Christ is born: Rejoice, rejoice, O Christianity! / O (you) joyful, O (you) blessed, (O) graceful time of Easter! World lay in bondage, Christ is risen: Rejoice, rejoice, O Christianity! / O joyful, O blessed, (O) graceful Pentecost time! Christ our Master, sanctify the spirits: Rejoice, rejoice, O Christianity!
1837 A kindergarten ("children's garden") is a preschool educational institution for children. Friedrich Fröbel created it as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school.  His goal was that children should be taken care of and nourished in "children's gardens" like plants in a garden.  Playing, activities, experience, and social interaction are now widely accepted as essential aspects of developing skills and knowledge.  In British English, nursery or playgroup is the usual term for preschool education, and kindergarten is rarely used, except in the context of special approaches to education, such as Steiner-Waldorf education (the educational philosophy of which was founded by Rudolf Steiner).
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSH0ioDxNo3m-7g18J4377SfrQzjlVYbWAA_sI19ASWuWIRzlBhpw 1837   Benjamin Disraeli becomes the first Jewish Member of Parliament in Britain. Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS, (12/21, 1804 – 4/19, 1881) was a British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure.  Christian (or crypto?) Convert –“the native tendency of the Jewish race is against the equality of man.  They have also another characteristic –the faculty of acquisition… Their bias is to religion, property, and natural aristocracy.”  D'Israeli promoted racist colonialism and the opium trade during the height of the empire's power.  "Under this roof are the heads of the family of Rothschild a name famous in every capital of Europe and every division of the globe. If you like, we shall divide the United States into two parts, one for you, James [Rothschild], and one for you, Lionel [Rothschild]. Napoleon will do exactly and all that I shall advise him." (This was reported to have been the comments of Disraeli at the marriage of Lionel Rothschild's daughter, Leonora, to her cousin, Alphonse, son of James Rothschild of Paris).
“Do you think that the quiet humdrum persecution of a decorous representative of an English university can crush those who have successively baffled the Pharaohs, Nebuchadnezzar, Rome and the Feudal ages? ... And, at this moment, in spite of centuries, of tens of centuries, of degradation, the Jewish mind exercises a vast influence on the affairs of Europe. I speak not of their laws, which you still obey; of their literature, with which your minds are saturated; but of the living Hebrew intellect.  You never observe a great intellectual movement in Europe in which the Jews do not greatly participate.  The first Jesuits were Jews; that mysterious Russian Diplomacy which so alarms Western Europe is organised and principally carried on by Jews; that mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany, and which will be, in fact, a second and greater Reformation, and of which so little is as yet known in England, is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews, who almost monopolise the professorial chairs of Germany.”
"The influence of the Jews may be traced in the last outbreak of the destructive principle in Europe.  An insurrection takes place against tradition and aristocracy, against religion and property.  Destruction of the Semitic principle, extirpation of the Jewish religion, whether in the Mosaic or the Christian form, the natural equality of man and the abrogation of property, are proclaimed by the secret societies who form proviso governments, and men of the Jewish race are found at the head of every one of them.  The people of God cooperate with atheists; the most skillful accumulators of property ally themselves with Communists; the peculiar and chosen race touch the hand of all the scum and low caste of Europe! And all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom they can no longer endure." (Disraeli, Life of Lord Bentinick)
Disraeli was the father of British Imperialism.  It was Disraeli who, with Rothschild funding, bought a controlling interest in the Suez Canal.  He also had Queen Victoria made Empress of India.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT910-c_ekEOmWDUc7sNG12tsxs-agfAKdb07PWu92WLy5uu4aSeg Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (6/6 1799–2/10 1837) was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. (possibly some black heritage)  The poet's bitterest statements on the Jews are in The Black Shawl, The Avaricious Knight and The Hussar. The first of these interpolates a "despicable Jew" into an old Romanian folk song; the second assails Jewish greed.  Black slaves had been brought to Pushkin’s area of Russia centuries ago.  Pushkin may have had some black blood.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/first-family/masthead_image/8mv_header_sm.jpg?1250871051  Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was President of the United States, serving from 1837 to 1841. As Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and then Vice President, he was a key figure in building the organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy, particularly in New York State. However, as a president, his administration was largely characterized by the economic hardship of his time, the Panic of 1837.  In 1848, he ran for president on a third-party ticket, the Free Soil Party.  Martin Van Buren is one of only two people, the other being Thomas Jefferson, to serve as Secretary of State, Vice President and President.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRpHa7ye2JUX3qc9HvuVF0UJAsGef-Arr_wG2O0Gkgg8rhAj9XD François Marie Charles Fourier (4/7, 1772 – 10/10, 1837) was a French utopian socialist and philosopher.  Fourier considered trade, which he associated with Jews, to be the "source of all evil" and advocated that Jews be forced to perform farm work in the phalansteries (self-contained community buildings).  He had incentives in his system: jobs people might not enjoy doing would receive higher pay.  “Lies and nothing but lies [is all one can expect from Jews] ... The Jews, by virtue of their dedication to trade, are the spies of all nations, and if need be, informers and hangmen, as one may see in Turkey today, where they denounce at so much per head, outcasts in hiding, and commit a thousand other infamous deeds.  (Théorie de l'unité universelle)   I have heard a Jew, who had several millions and who was a person of importance in his town, say to me and to others in Lyons time and time again, 'Sir, if I don't cheat, it's only because I can't ... The Jew is, so to speak, a traitor by definition. Bonaparte was (or at least pretended to be) passionately fond of the Jews, because he wanted to flatter the traders and speculators.  In return, the Jews betrayed him in Poland, and he ordered the dissolution of their Sanhedrin... As they behaved toward Napoleon, so will they behave toward all civilized states that will welcome them... (The Jewish religion] furthers vices such as the encouragement of deceit. It is obvious that it gives its adherents a dangerously immoral character. . . Leave the Jews in France for a century and they will organize their sect in each town; they will co-operate only among themselves.”  Fourier wrote “The New Industrial World” in 1808. 
In the Deutsches Wörterbuch, begun by the Brothers Grimm in 1838 (and completed in 1960), Jude was defined as, “Jew: . . . of their evil traits—they are offensive and slovenly, greedy and extortionate.  (One says) in a whole variety of idioms—dirty as an old Jew; he stinks like a Jew; . . . to taste like a dead Jew . . . to practice usury, to cheat, to profiteer, to borrow like a Jew . . . .” The dictionary also noted that Jew refers to part of a pig’s spinal column; to jew ( jüdeln) means to talk, bargain, or smell like a Jew.  [Who actually wrote this in the Dictionary and was it really still there in 1960?]
Ideas favoring the restoration of the Jews in the Palestine or Land of Israel entered the British public discourse in the 1830s, though British reformationists had written about the restoration of the Jews as early as the 16th century, and the idea had strong support among Puritans.  Not all such attitudes were favorable towards the Jews; they were shaped in part by a variety of Protestant beliefs, or by a streak of philo-Semitism among the classically educated British elite, or by hopes to extend the Empire. At the urging of Lord Shaftesbury, Britain established a consulate in Jerusalem in 1838, the first diplomatic appointment to Palestine.  In August 1840, The Times reported that the British government was considering Jewish restoration.
Of 31 British millionaires who died between 1808 and 1838, 24 were Jewish.  10/23 1988 NYT
Étienne Cabet (1/1, 1788– 11/9, 1856) was a French philosopher and utopian socialist.  He was the founder of the Icarian movement and led a group of emigrants to found a new society in the United States.  Influenced by Robert Owen, he wrote ("Travel and Adventures of Lord William Carisdall in Icaria") (1840), which depicted a utopia in which an elected government controlled all economic activity and supervised social affairs, the family remaining the only other independent unit.  Icaria is the name of the fictional country and ideal society he describes.  The success of this book prompted him to take steps to realize his Utopia.  In 1839, Cabet returned to France to advocate a communitarian social movement, for which he invented the term communisme.  Cabet's notion of a communal society influenced other socialist writers and philosophers, notably Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  Some of these other writers ignored Cabet's Christian influences, as described in his book (The real Christianity according to Jesus Christ, in five volumes).  This book described Christ's mission to be to establish social equality, and contrasted primitive Christianity with the ecclesiasticism of Cabet's time to the disparagement of the latter.  It also contained a popular history of the French Revolutions from 1789 to 1830.  There were probably 400,000 adherents of the Icarian school.  He coined the phrase: “From each according to his capabilities, to each according to his needs”.
Robert Owen (5/14 1771 – 11/17 1858) was a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.  Owen's philosophy was based on three pillars: people are products of their heredity and environment, hence his support for education and labor reform, rendering him a pioneer in human capital investment.  All religions consider man weak.  He supported the putting-out system (subcontracting, usually in one’s home) instead of the factory system.
1839   Britain starts the Opium War against China.  David Sassoon (October 1792 – 10/7, 1864) was the treasurer of Baghdad between 1817 and 1829.  The governor of Baghdad was overthrown for corruption in 1829.  He became the leader of the Jewish community in Mumbai after Baghdadi Jews emigrated there.  The British government granted Sassoon "monopoly rights" to the manufacture of cotton goods, silk, and most importantly, Opium—at that time the most addictive drug in the world!  He placed his eight sons in charge of the major opium exchanges in China.  According to the 1944 Jewish Encyclopedia: "He employed only Jews in his business, and wherever he sent them he built synagogues and schools for them.  He imported whole families of fellow Jews . . . and put them to work."  In 1839, the Manchu Emperor ordered it stopped.  Sassoon demanded that Great Britain retaliate.  The Opium Wars began with the British Army fighting as mercenaries of the Sassoons. They attacked cities and blockaded ports.  The Chinese Army, decimated by 10 years of rampant opium addiction, proved no match for the British Army.  The war ended in 1839 with the signing of "The Treaty of Nanking."  This included provisions especially designed to guarantee the Sassoons the right to enslave an entire population with opium.  The "peace treaty" included the following provisions:- Full legalization of the opium trade in China, Compensation from the opium stockpiles confiscated by Lin of 2 million pounds, Territorial sovereignty for the British Crown over two hundred offshore islands.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQy3kCIZfREhaHHBonXqEKDYILLUJXPVUsNyYBDAFough_2jhZE3Q Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, philosopher, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid 19th century.  The great American essayist of transcendence of the material world, and the sacredness of individual expression and self-reliance (all anathema to traditional Jewish materialist collectivism) wrote that "the sufferance which is the badge of the Jew has made him, in these days, the ruler of the rulers of the earth." [EMERSON, p. 39] As Jewish scholar Robert Michael complains," [Emerson] saw Judaism, the Jewish idea, as a stumbling block to authentic human liberation.  The Jewish God was cruel; the Jewish Law stifling. What was bad about Christianity was its Jewish substance.  At the less ideological level, his work is also peppered with anti-Jewish sentiments ...  In his journal entry for 3 July 1839, he wrote: In the Allston Gallery the Polish Jews are an offense to me; they degrade and animalize." [MICHAEL, R., 9-7-98]  The Jew is “The ruler of the rulers of the earth.” -R.W. Emerson, The Conduct of Life, 1860
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-oldwest/John%20Jacob%20Astor.jpg John Jacob Astor (July 17, 1763 – March 29, 1848), born Johann Jakob or Johann Jacob Astor, was the first prominent member of the Astor family and the first multi-millionaire in the United States.  He was the creator of the first trust in America, from which he made his fortune in fur trading, real estate and opium.  The Astors were Jewish and John joined the Masons.  The original financial break came by carrying out a series of shady and crooked real estate deals in the N.Y. city area.  The next break came when John Jacob Astor was given a special government privilege.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (7/28, 1804– 9/13, 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist.  The attack on Christianity (1839) is followed up in his most important work, (1841), which was translated by George Eliot into English as The Essence of Christianity.  "In the consciousness of the infinite, the conscious subject has for his object the infinity of his own nature."  Feuerbach's theme was a derivation of Hegel's speculative theology in which the Creation remains a part of the Creator, while the Creator remains greater than the Creation.  “The principle of the Jewish religion is egoism.  The Jew is indifferent to everything which does not directly refer to his own well-being.  Hebrew Egoism is immeasurably deep and powerful.  The Jews received by the grace of Jehovah the command to steal.”



1840         1840         1840         1840
**** The German Historical School of Law is a 19th century intellectual movement in the study of German law.  With Romanticism as its background, it emphasized the historical limitations of the law.  It stood in opposition to an earlier movement called Vernunftsrecht (Natural Law).  The Historical School is based on the writings and teaching of Gustav Hugo and especially Friedrich Carl von Savigny.  Natural lawyers held that law could be discovered only by rational deduction from the nature of man.  The basis premise of the German Historical School is that law is not to be regarded as an arbitrary grouping of regulations laid down by some authority.  Rather, those regulations are to be seen as the expression of the convictions of the people, in the same manner as language, customs and practices are expressions of the people.  The law is grounded in a form of popular consciousness called the Volksgeist.
Laws can stem from regulations by the authorities, but more commonly they evolve in an organic manner over time without interference from the authorities.  The ever-changing practical needs of the people play a very important role in this continual organic development.  In the development of a legal system, is it the professional duty of lawyers – in the sense of the division of labor in society – to base their academic work on law on ascertaining the will of the people.  In this way, lawyers embody the popular will.  The German Historical School was divided into Romanists and the Germanists.  The Romantists, to whom Savigny also belonged, held that the Volksgeist springs from the reception of the Roman law.  While the Germanists (Karl Friedrich Eichhorn, Jakob Grimm, Georg Beseler, Otto von Gierke) saw medieval German Law as the expression of the German Volksgeist.  The German Historical School has had considerable influence on the academic study of law in Germany.  Georg Friedrich Puchta and Bernhard Windscheid continued the Romanist vein founded by Savigny, leading to the so called Pandektenwissenschaft which is seen as Begriffsjurisprudenz (conceptual jurisprudence).
Friedrich Carl von Savigny (2/21, 1779 – 10/25, 1861) was a respected and influential jurist and historian.
Gustav von Hugo (11/23, 1764 – 9/15, 1844) was a German jurist.

1841: President John Tyler vetoed the act to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States.  He goes on to receive hundreds of letters threatening him with assassination.
~1840 The Germ Theory of Disease, was highly controversial when first proposed.  Mainstream scientists did not accept the theory until about 60 years later.  The Germ Theory of Disease is yet another example of how the Truth is hidden by the Mainstream with bias for professional reputations.  One day the silly Jewish exaggerations of the Holocaust will be obliterated.
Robert Southey (8/12, 1774 – 3/21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813.  Although his fame has been long eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Southey's verse still enjoys some popularity.  Southey was a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer, historian and biographer. His biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell and Horatio Nelson.  Perhaps his most enduring contribution to literary history is the immortal children's classic, The Story of the Three Bears, the original Goldilocks story, which first saw print in 1834 in Southey's prose collection, The Doctor.  In “Letters from England” (1808): …the chief ostensible trade of this class is in old clothes, but they deal also in stolen goods, and not infrequently in coining.  You meet Jew pedlars everywhere…, But when they meet a likely chapman, they produce others of the most obscene and mischievous kind.  Anything for money…England has been called the hell of horses, the purgatory of servants and the paradise of women; it may be added that it is the heaven of the Jews!”
Dr Thomas Arnold (6/13, 1795 – 6/12, 1842) was a British educator and historian.  Arnold was an early supporter of the Broad Church Anglican movement.  He was headmaster of Rugby School from 1828 to 1841, where he introduced a number of reforms.  The biography, Life of Arnold, published two years after his early death by one of his former pupils, is considered one of the best works of its class in the language and added to his growing reputation.  In 1896 his bust was unveiled in Westminster Abbey alongside that of his son, Matthew.  Rugby School produced the first written rules for Rugby Football in 1845.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTKaXpmNe73bB4C3V4cXNHWMjROCHnkvA5abLqlP_A7eKlR_35YfQ The novel, Tom Brown's Schooldays portrays a generation of boys "who feared the Doctor with all our hearts, and very little besides in heaven or earth; who thought more of our sets in the School than of the Church of Christ, and put the traditions of Rugby and the public opinion of boys in our daily life above the laws of God".  Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) is a novel by Thomas Hughes.  Tom Brown's Schooldays was tremendously influential on the genre of British school novels, including the 2000’s Hogwarts.  The central theme of the novel is the development of boys. The symmetrical way in which Tom and Arthur supply each other's deficiencies shows that Hughes believed in the importance of physical development, boldness, fighting spirit, and sociability (Tom's contribution) as well as Christian morality and idealism (Arthur's).  The novel is essentially didactic, and was not primarily written by its author as an entertainment.
Thomas Arnold shared with his AngloCatholic adversaries the conviction that Christianity must be the law of the land.  In 1834 (a year after the Jewish Emancipation Bill had been passed by the Commons but rejected by the Lords) Arnold insisted that he "must petition against the Jew Bill" because it is based on "that low Jacobinical notion of citizenship, that a man acquires a right to it by the accident of his being littered (coarse word) inter quatuor maria [on the nation's soil] or because he pays taxes."  Jews, Arnold argued, had no claim whatever to political rights because "the Jews are strangers in England, and have no more claim to legislate for it, than a lodger has to share with the landlord in the management of his house.... England is the land of Englishmen, not of Jews ... my German friends agree with me."  If the Jews were to be accorded citizenship, Arnold feared, they might one day become magistrates or judges, an appalling prospect.  "Surely the one thing needful for a Christian and an Englishman to study is Christian and moral and political philosophy, and then we should see our way a little more clearly without falling into Judaism or Toryism, or Jacobinism or any other ism whatever."  "The poisonous plant of Judaism was cut down or withered away; but the root was left in the ground; and thus, when its season returned, it sprung up again, and is now growing rankly."  A university, in Arnold's view, can aid the cause of general education only if it has a Christian character.  The "Jewish God" is a fierce, tribal deity who was supplanted in the progressive movement of the world by the gentle and "universal" Christian one.
Matthew Arnold (12/24, 1822 – 4/15, 1888) was a British poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.  He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School, and brother to both Tom Arnold, literary professor, and William Delafield Arnold, novelist and colonial administrator.  Matthew Arnold has been characterized as a sage writer, a type of writer who chastises and instructs the reader on contemporary social issues.  However, he also wrote in the same book, "to pass from a Christianity relying on its miracles to a Christianity relying on its natural truth is a great change.  It can only be brought about by those whose attachment to Christianity is such, that they cannot part with it, and yet cannot but deal with it sincerely."  “In spite of all which in them and in their character is unattractive, nay, repellent,--in spite of their shortcomings even in righteousness itself and their insignificance in everything else,--this petty, unsuccessful, unamiable people, without politics, without science, without art, without charm, deserve their great place in the world's regard, and are likely to have it more, as the world goes on, rather than less.”  Matthew Arnold became more tolerant than his father.  In St. Paul and Protestantism (1871), he treats "the great mediaeval Jewish school of Biblical critics" with a respect rare among Victorian Christian writers, mainly because they provide support the view that the Bible is a work of literature and not of science.  The medieval Jewish commentators enunciated "the admirable maxim," forgotten for centuries by virtually all Christian exegetes, that "The Law speaks with the tongue of the children of men,--a maxim which is the very foundation of all sane Biblical criticism."  Arnold does not entirely abandon the spirit of Christian triumphalism over the "old" law.  The Jewish conception of righteousness was often "narrow" until the prophets brought into play the more profound elements of personal religion such as conscience.  Arnold says, "Every time that the words contrition or humility drop from the lips of prophet or psalmist, Christianity appears."
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/Wislicenus_Germania.jpg/220px-Wislicenus_Germania.jpg "The Watch on the Rhine!" (1840) by Max Schneckenburger is one of the most famous patriotic songs in German history.  It became very popular among German troops during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71).  The Rhine is the great natural barrier between France and Germany.  The Germans had for several centuries been under attack from the French.   Centuries before, the Rhine was the natural barrier protecting the Germans from the Romans.  1.A cry resounds like thunder-bolts, Admist thrashing waves and clang of swords: The Rhine, the Rhine, go to our German Rhine! Who watches today our holy Rhine? Chorus: Beloved Fatherland, no danger thine; Your watch is true, the guard stands here.;  2.A hundred thousand harts beat fast, The eyes of all to you are cast, The German youth, loyal and strong. Protects you, as he has so long. Chorus: Beloved Fatherland, no danger thine; Your watch is true, the guard stands here.;  3.The dead of an heroic race From heaven look down and meet this gaze; He swears with courageous heart, "O Rhine, Be German as this breast of mine!" Chorus: Beloved Fatherland, no danger thine; Your watch is true, the guard stands here.;   4.While flows one drop of German blood, Or sword remains to guard thy deluge, While guns rest in patriot hands, No foe shall tread thy sacred strand! Chorus: Beloved Fatherland, no danger thine; Your watch is true, the guard stands here.;  5.Our oath resounds, the river flows, In golden light our banner glows; Our hearts will guard thy holy stream: The Rhine, the Rhine, the German Rhine! Chorus: Beloved Fatherland, no danger thine; Your watch is true, the guard stands here. (Germania on guard on the Rhine, Hermann Wislicenus, 1873)
Augustin Eugène Scribe (12/24 1791 – 2/20 1861), was a French dramatist and librettist.  In his Le Vau d'Or, a stock speculator calls the 19th century "a Jewish age."
José Zorrilla y Moral (2/21 1817 – 1/23 1893), was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.  Speaking of Jews: “Ambitious, greedy ones, Whose insatiable hands Move always in search of gold…”(El Zapatero y el Rey)
Pierre Henri Leroux (April 7, 1797 - April 12, 1871), French philosopher and political economist.  “It is quite evident, is it not my friends, that when we speak of Jews we mean the Jewish spirit, the spirit of profit, of lucre, of gain, the spirit of commerce, of speculation, in a word the banker spirit.  No doubt there is a necessary link between the bank and the people who invented it, used it and perfected it...  One may say that, inasmuch as individualistic and egoistic industry is destined to reign, for a time, on the ruins of any true social organization, the Jews, these individualistic and egoistic industrials par excellence, were predestined for their triumph.” (The Jews, Kings of the time)
Captain Frederick Marryat (7/10 1792 – 8/9 1848) was an English Royal Navy officer, novelist, and a contemporary and acquaintance of Charles Dickens, noted today as an early pioneer of the sea story.  He is now known particularly for the semi-autobiographical novel Mr Midshipman Easy and his children's novel The Children of the New Forest, and for a widely used system of maritime flag signalling, known as Marryat's Code. In the book Poor Jack (1840), chapter 18, Marryat speaks of Jewish "fences" in England: "Then we have what we call Jew Carts, always ready to take [stolen] goods inland, where they will not be looked after."
~1840 Ferdinand Christian Baur (6/21, 1792 – 12/2, 1860) was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology (named for University of Tübingen). Following Hegel's theory of dialectic, Baur argued that 2nd century Christianity represented the synthesis of two opposing theses: Jewish Christianity and Pauline Christianity.
Johann Tobias Beck (2/22, 1804 -12/28, 1878) was a German theologian.  He was one of the Tübingen faculty who was strongly opposed to the general radical tendency of that university, under the influence of F. C. Baur, the leader of the so-called Tübingen school.  Beck was and remained absolutely orthodox.  He was known as a critic of both left and right wing Christian groups in Germany in the 19th century.  His polemical style centered around a "biblical realism," one which saw the scriptures as an integrated system in and of themselves, an unconditional authority over both Enlightenment-style reasoning and ecclesiastical confessions.  As for doctrinal science, Beck held that there was no such thing as "speculative knowledge," but only "believing knowledge," which he called gnosis.  Karl Barth (among others) has responded to J.T. Beck as an important dialogue partner.  Organic continuity between Judaism and christianity
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_vkGso8H6L14/TGSr4as0BII/AAAAAAAACfY/Hav88K39Bjg/s1600/damascus%2Baffair%2Bpropaganda.gif  The Damascus Affair was an 1840 incident in which the accusation of ritual murder was brought against members of the Jewish community of Damascus who were accused of having assassinated a Capuchin friar, Father Thomas, and his assistant for ritual purposes.  Upon Thomas' disappearance the French consul instituted investigations.  A confession was extorted from a Jewish barber and eight of the most notable Jews.  The power of international Jewish pressures came to Damascus.  "For the Jews, the Damascus affair launched modern Jewish politics on an international scale, and for American Jews it represented their first effort at creating a distinctive political agenda.  Just as the United States had used this affair to proclaim its presence on the global scale, so too did American Jews, in their newspapers and at mass meetings, announce to their coreligionists in France and England that they too ought to be thought of players in global Jewish diplomacy."
Jew Cover-up: (see 1140) went into full effect.
1840.   Ex-Rabbi Mousa Abou-el-Afieh, who became a Mahommedan during the Damascus Ritual Murder trial, gave evidence that the blood of the murdered Father Thomas had been ordered by the Grand Rabbi Yakoub el Entabi, and was required for the use of zealous persons who sent Yakoub their flour for Passover, in which he mixed the Christian's blood. The employment of the blood was a secret of the Grand Rabbis.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Vladimir_dahl.jpg/220px-Vladimir_dahl.jpgVladimir Ivanovich Dal (Dahl; 11/10, 1801 – 9/22, 1872) was one of the greatest Russian language lexicographers.  He was a founding member of the Russian Geographical Society.  He knew at least six languages including Turkic and is considered to be one of the early Turkologists.  During his lifetime he compiled and documented the oral history of the region that was later published in Russian and became part of modern folklore.  His father was a Danish physician.  He was a linguist versed in German, English, French, Russian, Yiddish, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.  Dal was interested in language and folklore from his early years. He started traveling by foot through the countryside, collecting sayings and fairy tales in various Slavic languages from the region.  He published his first collection of fairy-tales in 1832 in Russian language.  Some others, yet unpublished, were put in verse by his friend Alexander Pushkin, and have become some of the most familiar texts in the Russian language.  Dal sometimes used the pen name Kazak Lugansky. His magnum opus, Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian language, was published in four huge volumes in 1863–1866.
Vladimir Dal worked in Ministry of Domestic Affairs, the chief administrative center of minister (1841).  His responsibilities included overseeing investigations of murders of children in the western part of Russia.  In 1840 the Damascus Affair had revived the understanding of blood libel.  In 1844, Dal wrote "Investigation on the Murder of Christian Children by the Jews and the Use of Their Blood."  Dal claimed in his report that, although the vast majority of Jews had not even heard of ritual murder, ritual murders and the use of blood for magical purposes were committed by sects of fanatical Hasidic Jews.  In 1914, 42 years after Vladimir Dal's death, during the blood libel trial of Menahem Mendel Beilis in Kiev, Dal's then 70-year-old report was published in St. Petersburg under the title Notes on Ritual Murders. The name of the author was not stated on this new edition intended for the public.  In his book, Report on Ritual Murder, he concluded that some sects of Jews do so.  His poem, “Cossack From Lugansk”, is regarded by some commentators as anti-Jewish.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, Kt (10/24, 1784 – 7/28, 1885) was one of the most famous British Jews of the 19th century.  Montefiore was a financier, banker, philanthropist and Sheriff of London.  Montefiore was born in Livorno, Italy in 1784.  He began his career as an apprentice to a firm of grocers and tea merchants.  He later left for London, and became one of the twelve "Jew brokers" in the City of London. There he went into business with his brother Abraham, and their firm gained a high reputation.  In 1812, Moses Montefiore married Judith Cohen (1784-1862), daughter of Levi Barent Cohen.  Her sister, Henriette (or Hannah) (1791-1866), married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836), for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers. Nathan Rothschild headed the family's banking business in Britain, and the two brothers-in-law became business partners.  Montefiore retired from his business in 1824, and used his time and fortune for communal and civic responsibilities. Physically imposing at 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), he was elected Sheriff of London in 1837 and served until 1838.  He was also knighted that same year by Queen Victoria and received a baronetcy in 1846 in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people.
He went to the Sultan of Turkey in 1840 to liberate from prison ten Syrian Jews of Damascus arrested after a blood libel; to Rome in 1858 to try and free the Jewish youth Edgardo Mortara, baptised by his Catholic nurse and kidnapped by functionaries of the Catholic Church; to Russia in 1846 and 1872; to Morocco in 1864 and to Romania in 1867.  It was these missions that made him a folk hero of near mythological proportions among the oppressed Jews of Eastern Europe, North Africa and the Levant.   Jewish philanthropy and the Holy Land were at the center of Montefiore's interests.  He traveled there by carriage and ship seven times, sometimes accompanied by his wife.  He visited for the first time in 1827, followed by visits in 1838, 1849, 1855, 1857, 1866, and 1875.  He made his last trip at the age of 91.  Montefiore donated large sums of money to promote industry, education and health.  One of his greatest successes was his interference in the Damascus Affair.  “Until all newspapers of the world are in our hands, our reign remains a phantom of the brain.” “…Jerusalem is destined to become the city of a Jewish commonwealth.”
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wyChristian Restoration (Here & 1890)
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT6gXFxReP8Bi_d7ULWfq3jJqEVPSOBqRg7HdPL1s3EmZHrIcuXSA  Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (10/20, 1784 – 10/18, 1865), more popularly known simply as Lord Palmerston, was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. Popularly nicknamed "Pam", he was in government office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865, beginning his parliamentary career as a Tory and concluding it as a Liberal.  In 1840, British Foreign Minister Palmerston launched Zionism writing that the Jews desired to return to Palestine and a month later the British landed troops in Palestine for the first time.  It was fed by British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that people of Western European descent are also the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and it is often accompanied by the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.  There may be some truth to the theory, but it has led to an Anglo-Israel conspiracy.
http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/candyman/candyman1110/candyman111000002/10755325-anthony-ashley-cooper-7th-earl-of-shaftesbury-1801-1885-on-engraving-from-1837-english-politician-an.jpg  http://christchurchwindsor.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/lord_shaftesbury.jpg Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury KG (4/28 1801 – 10/1 1885) was an English politician and philanthropist, one of the best-known of the Victorian era and one of the main proponents of Christian Zionism.  Shaftesbury was a proponent of the Restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land.  A committed Christian and a loyal Englishman, Shaftesbury argued for a Jewish return because of what he saw as the political and economic advantages to England and because he believed that it was God's will.
In January 1839, Shaftesbury provided the first proposal by a major politician to resettle Jews in Palestine: “The soil and climate of Palestine are singularly adapted to the growth of produce required for the exigencies of Great Britain; the finest cotton may be obtained in almost unlimited abundance; silk and madder are the staple of the country, and olive oil is now, as it ever was, the very fatness of the land.  Capital and skill are alone required: the presence of a British officer, and the increased security of property which his presence will confer, may invite them from these islands to the cultivation of Palestine; and the Jews', who will betake themselves to agriculture in no other land, having found, in the English consul, a mediator between their people and the Pacha, will probably return in yet greater numbers, and become once more the husbandmen of Judaea and Galilee.
“Napoleon knew well the value of an Hebrew alliance; and endeavoured to reproduce, in the capital of France, the spectacle of the ancient Sanhedrin, which, basking in the sunshine of imperial favour, might give laws to the whole body of the Jews throughout the habitable world, and aid him, no doubt, in his audacious plans against Poland and the East. His scheme, it is true, proved abortive; for the mass of the Israelites were by no means inclined to merge their hopes in the destinies of the Empire—exchange Zion for Montmartre, and Jerusalem for Paris. The few liberal unbelievers whom he attracted to his views ruined his projects with the people by their impious flattery; and averted the whole body of the nation by blending, on the 15th of August, the cipher of Napoleon and Josephine with the unutterable name of Jehovah, and elevating the imperial eagle above the representation of the Ark of the Covenant. A misconception, in fact of the character of the people has vitiated all the attempts of various Sovereigns to better their condition ; they have sought to amalgamate them with the body of their subjects, not knowing, or not regarding the temper of the Hebrews, and the plain language of Scripture, that ' the people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations.' That which Napoleon designed in his violence and ambition, thinking ' to destroy nations not a few,' we may wisely and legitimately undertake for the maintenance of our Empire.”
Later in 1839 he wrote “The State and the Rebirth of the Jews” and urged the Jews to return to Palestine in order to seize the lands of Galilee and Judea.  In July 1853, Shaftesbury wrote to Prime Minister Aberdeen that Greater Syria was “a country without a nation” in need of “a nation without a country... Is there such a thing?  To be sure there is, the ancient and rightful lords of the soil, the Jews!"  In his diary that year he wrote “these vast and fertile regions will soon be without a ruler, without a known and acknowledged power to claim dominion.  The territory must be assigned to someone or other... There is a country without a nation; and God now in his wisdom and mercy, directs us to a nation without a country."[This is commonly cited as an early use of the phrase, "A land without a people for a people without a land" by which Shaftesbury was echoing another British proponent of the restoration of the Jews to Israel, Dr Keith (Alexander Keith, D.D.)  Even though Shaftesbury was extremely philo-semitic, he was prepared to criticise them on occasion. He is on record as having said: “It would be tempting to laugh at Jews for their grotesque life-style, if they were not so willing and able to do harm.”  (Characteristics of Men)
However, Shaftesbury the Zionist persuaded Lord Palmerston, the British Foreign Secretary, to take active steps to bring about the return of the Jews to Palestine.  On the 25th of September, 1840, he presented a formal document to Palmerston calling for the "recall of the Jews to their ancient land." Shaftesbury said it was essential to make Syria a British dominion in order to facilitate the return to Israel of the Jews.  He underlined that this would require both capital and labor and that capital was "of too sensitive a nature to flow with readiness into any country where neither property nor life can be regarded as secure".  In an 1840 letter to Vicount Palmerston, he said: “If we consider their return in the light of a new establishment or colonization of Palestine, we shall find it to be the cheapest and safest mode of supplying the wants of these depopulated regions… Syria then will be a place of trade pre-eminence.  And who are pre-eminently the traders of the world?  Will there, when the coming change has taken place, be any more congenial field for the energies of the Jew?... And has not England a special interest in promoting such a restoration?  It would be a blow to England if either of her rivals should get hold of Syria.” 
When Shaftesbury became President of the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1865 he declared in his opening address: “Let us not delay to send out the best agents ... to search the length and breadth of Palestine, to survey the land, and if possible to go over every corner of it, drain it, measure it, and, if you will, prepare it for the return of its ancient possessors, for I believe that the time cannot be far off before that great event will come to pass…The inherent vitality of the Hebrew race reasserts itself with amazing persistence.  Its genius, to tell the truth, adapts itself more or less to all the currents of civilization all over the world, nevertheless always emerging with distinctive features and a gallant recovery of vigor.  There is unbroken identity of Jewish race and Jewish mind down to our times; but the great revival can take place only in the Holy Land.” 
Shaftesbury also said: “Give the country without a people to the people without a country.”  See Christian Restorationism, (1890)
Alexander Keith (1791–1880) was a Church of Scotland minister.  Keith wrote “Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion Derived from the Literal Fulfillment of Prophecy” (1826).  Keith recounts his Palestine journey in his 1844 book “The Land of Israel According to the Covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob”.  It was also in that book that Keith used the slogan that became popular with other Christian Restorationists, “A land without a people for a people without a land”.  Keith is one of a large number of Christians who campaigned for a restoration of the Jews to their ancient homeland.  In 1844 he wrote: "Greece was given to the Greeks, and in seeking any government for Syria, may not a confederacy of kings - give Judea to the Jews?"

Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay PC (10/25, 1800 – 12/28, 1859) was a British poet, historian and Whig politician.  He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer, and on British history.  He also held political office as Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841 and Paymaster-General between 1846 and 1848.  Macaulay pushed for repeal of disabilities by arguing that any religious differences between Christians and Jews “have no more to do with his fitness to be a magistrate, a legislator, or a minister of finance, than with his fitness to be a cobbler”.  (A Philo-Semite with sentimentality towards OT Jews, not contemporaries.)
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/first-family/masthead_image/9wh_header_sm.jpg?1250871195  William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office and in only one month.  He may have been poisoned for obstructing House of Rothschild plans for the US Civil War.
Photo of John Tyler John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) was President of the United States (1841–1845).  Once he became president, he stood against his party's platform and vetoed several of their proposals. In result, most of his cabinet resigned and the Whigs expelled him from their party.  The most significant achievement of Tyler's administration was the annexation of the Republic of Texas in 1845.
Anna Elisabeth (Annette) von Droste-Hülshoff (1/10, 1797 – 5/24, 1848), was a German author, and poet.  She was born into an aristocratic Catholic family and was educated by private tutors.  In 1841 she writes "The Jew's Beech Tree":  "If he took the money from Aaron, you may be sure the accursed Jew had swindled him of it before.  Hülsmeyer is a decent, proper man, and the Jews are all rogues."  … The place shook with laughter; many had followed into the yard. "seize the Jew! weigh him against a pig!"
Isaac Baer Levinsohn (10/13, 1788- 2/12, 1860) became the "Russian Mendelssohn" taking up the idea of Haskalah.  He was a notable Russian-Hebrew scholar, satirist, writer and Haskalah leader.  In his Bet Yehudah (1837), he formulated a philosophy and described Jewish contributions to civilization in an effort to promote Judeo-Christian understanding.  (I believe he was deceitful.)  Czar Nicholas I took an immediate interest in the movement endorsed by the highly respected Levinsohn, for he saw in "Haskalah" an opportunity for possibly breaking down the separatism of the Khazar Talmudists.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxkLCZbo5lZ7GEKTwJeh61ogbVRhMq6XfIgzi0Trn6V8hf7-sj Nicholas I (Pavlovič), (7/6, 1796 – 3/2, 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs.  On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles).  In his capacity as the emperor he was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland.  "The ruin of the peasants in these provinces are the Zhids.  They are full fledged leeches sucking up these unfortunate provinces to the point of exhaustion." (Nikolai I in his diaries)(see 1825)
Max Lilienthal - Rabbi and educator for Russian Jews; (11/6, 1815, Munich-4/5, 1882, Cincinnati); educated at the University of Munich (Ph.D. 1837).  Nicholas I put Dr. Max Lilienthal in charge of the project of opening hundreds of secular Khazar schools.  It was the intention of the government to establish Jewish schools for secular and religious instruction, and the duty assigned to Lilienthal was to determine the attitude of the Jews in regard to them and to quiet their fears as to the intentions of the government; for the plans of the latter were regarded with suspicion among the Jewish masses, who believed that the real purpose of the proposed schools was to lead the Jews gradually to conversion to Christianity.  Lilienthal was soon convinced, however, that his efforts in behalf of the Russian Jews would not yield the desired results; as a foreigner it was difficult for him to gain a true insight into their traditions, hopes, and aspirations.
As a leader of the Reform group of Jews, he stirred up a great furor in Russia when he denounced the rival Lubavitcher Orthodox Jews to the government, saying that the rabbis encouraged unethical activities against the Gentiles, including usury and fraud.  He also accused the Lubavitcher Jews of smuggling large sums out of Russia, intended for Zionist activities in Palestine.
“Russian Khazars were devoid of all secular learning, steeped in Yiddish fanaticism, given to Kabbalistic superstitious practices and the oligarchy of rabbis had no notion of tolerating a project which would lessen or destroy their positions of social control and power.  The rabbis held all the authority as the religion of the Talmud had in effect evolved from a code of conduct to a code of prescriptive laws to be adhered to when taking any action.  These Yiddish rabbi's comprehended that the new education was designed to lessen the authority of Talmud and the rabbis iron grip, which was the cause, as the Russians saw it, "of the fanaticism and corrupt morals of the Jews." 

Franz von Dingelstedt (6/30, 1814 – 5/15, 1881) was a German poet, dramatist and theatre administrator.  “Gone are the days of bitter tribulation; / Changed are the times which now we see emerge. / The cunning Jew, amid our lamentation, / From our unskilful hands doth wrest the scourge.  He crowds the farmer hard with scheming knavish, / The trader from the mart he elbows well; / And half with gold and half with mocking slavish, / Buys from the spirit of the age his spell.  Where ere you turn, the thrusting Jew will meet you-/ The Chosen of the Lord in every view. / Lock him in the ghetto, I entreat you, / Lest in some ghetto he lock you!”
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSsvN6IKSgeJuz81I0LyA8Kx-zTOkUm6xTE-BfGk6PW-HWNZIGI7g The Dead Sea Apes is a fable of dwellers by the Dead Sea who, according to the Muslim tradition, were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses.  It is also a metaphor used, for instance by Carlyle, describing people in modern times to whom the universe, with all its serious voices, seems to have become a weariness and a humbug.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR6fxAnKtfDLz0O0eiQCemCCdf1N_1bVP4Or6oPfbYZ6Yk8Lpcu 1841 “On Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History” by Thomas Carlyle (12/4, 1795 – 2/5, 1881) was a Scottish satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher during the Victorian era.  He called economics "the dismal science", wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, and became a controversial social commentator.  Coming from a strict Calvinist family, Carlyle was expected by his parents to become a preacher, but while at the University of Edinburgh, he lost his Christian faith.  Calvinist values, however, remained with him throughout his life.  This combination of a religious temperament with loss of faith in traditional Christianity made Carlyle's work appealing to many Victorians who were grappling with scientific and political changes that threatened the traditional social order.  “Actually and spiritually the Jews only deal in money, gold and old clothes; of real worth they have contributed nothing.”
In Carlyle’s “Past and Present”, he presents the degeneration and disintegration of society, especially after the Industrial Revolution, which transformed man into labor units.  He writes again of Heroes as the Temples of God.
****Hero - A hero, in Greek mythology, was originally a demigod, later, hero came to refer to characters who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, display courage and the will for self sacrifice—that is, heroism—for some greater good of all humanity.  The philosopher Hegel gave a central role to the "hero", personalized by Napoleon, as the incarnation of a particular culture's Volksgeist, and thus of the general Zeitgeist.  Thomas Carlyle's 1841 On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History also accorded a key function to heroes and great men in history.  Carlyle centered history on the biography of a few central individuals such as Oliver Cromwell or Frederick the Great.  His heroes were political and military figures, the founders or topplers of states.  His history of great men, of geniuses good and evil, sought to organize change in the advent of greatness.  In contrast, Karl Marx argued that history was determined by the massive social forces at play in "class struggles", not by the individuals by whom these forces are played out.
**The Great Man Theory was a popular 19th century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes: highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or Machiavellianism utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact.  The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle, and in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a decisive counter-argument that remained influential throughout the 20th century; Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetime.
Carlyle commented that "The history of the world is but the biography of great men," reflecting his belief that heroes shape history through both their personal attributes and divine inspiration.  In his book On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, Carlyle set out how he saw history as having turned on the decisions of "heroes", giving detailed analysis of the influence of several such men (including Muhammad, Shakespeare, Luther, Rousseau, and Napoleon).  Carlyle also felt that the study of great men was "profitable" to one's own heroic side; that by examining the lives led by such heroes, one could not help but uncover something about one's true nature.  Alongside with Carlyle the Great Man theory was supported by American scholar Frederick Adams Woods.  In his work The Influence of Monarchs: Steps in a New Science of History Woods investigated 386 rulers in Western Europe from the 12th century till the French revolution in the late 18th century and their influence on the course of historical events.
The theory is usually contrasted with a theory that talks about events occurring in the fullness of time, or when an overwhelming wave of smaller events causes certain developments to occur.  The Great Man approach to history was most fashionable with professional historians in the 19th century; a popular work of this school is the Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911) which contains lengthy and detailed biographies about the great men of history, but very few general or social histories.  For example, all information on the post-Roman "Migrations Period" of European History is compiled under the biography of Attila the Hun.  This heroic view of history was also strongly endorsed by some philosophical figures such as Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Spengler, but it fell out of favor after World War II.  In Untimely Meditations, Nietzsche writes that: "...the goal of humanity lies in its highest specimens".  In Fear and Trembling, Kierkegaard writes that: "...to be able to fall down in such a way that the same second it looks as if one were standing and walking, to transform the leap of life into a walk, absolutely to express the sublime and the pedestrian -- that only these knights of faith can do -- this is the one and only prodigy."
Hegel, proceeding from providentialist theory, argued that what is real is reasonable and World-Historical individuals are World-Spirit's agents. Thus, according to Hegel, a great man does not create historical reality himself but only uncovers the inevitable future.  Tolstoy's War and Peace features criticism of Great Man Theories as a recurring theme in the philosophical digressions.  According to Tolstoy, the significance of great individuals is imaginary; as a matter of fact they are only history's slaves realizing the decree of Providence.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4JDrw21vLpJ4dwqWnLn_79WROs2Vxugu6DjjBWTMFvkG2jONm Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (7/29, 1805– 4/16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856).  In both of these works, he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies.  From his writing Democracy in America, the insidiousness of government: ‘The will of man is not shattered, but softened, bent and guided; men are seldom forced by it to act, but they are constantly restrained from acting.  Such a power does not destroy, but it prevents existence; it does not tyrranize, but it compresses, enervates, extinguishes and stupefies a people, till each nation is reduced to nothing better than a flock of timid and industrious animals, of which the government is the shepherd.’
“The Human Sacrifices of the Ancient Hebrews” 1842 by F W Ghillany was a study of ancient Jewish ritual murder that, quite by coincidence, was published just before the slaying of Father Thomas in Damascus, a crime that was widely believed to have been a ritual affair.
Wilhelm Weitling (10/5, 1808–1/24, 1871) was characterized as a "utopian socialist" by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, although Engels also referred to Weitling as the "founder of German communism".  He worked as a tailor, social activist and inventor in the United States.  In 1843 he wrote “Gospel of a Poor Sinner” where Jesus was portrayed as a communist reformer.
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (3/20, 1770 – 3/7, 1843) was a major German lyric poet, commonly associated with the artistic movement known as Romanticism.  Hölderlin was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism.  Hölderlin was a man of his time, an early supporter of the French Revolution – in his youth at the Seminary of Tübingen, he and some colleagues from a "republican club" planted a "Tree of Freedom" in the market square, prompting the Grand-Duke himself to admonish the students at the seminary.  In his early years he was an enthusiastic supporter of Napoleon, whom he honors in one of his couplets.  For Hölderlin, the Greek gods were not the plaster figures of conventional classicism, but living, actual presences, wonderfully life-giving though, at the same time, terrifying.  He understood and sympathized with the Greek idea of the tragic fall, which he expressed movingly in the last stanza of his ("Hyperion's Song of Destiny").  The Duino Elegies became a powerful influence on modern poetry in German and other languages, and are sometimes cited as the very crown of German lyric poetry. Hölderlin's hymnic style – dependent as it is on a genuine belief in the divinity – creates a deeply personal fusion of Greek mythic figures and romantic nature mysticism.

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkJnO9LOVXF8t7pD8tJ74sHD6E7cmeTsAH7bXFpaUhx-LQ5jt8zQ ****1843 B'nai B'rith International (Sons of the Covenant) is the oldest continually operating Jewish service organization in the world.  It was founded in New York City on October 13, 1843.  It is part of the Jewish Freemasonry conspiracy and an intgelligence service benefiting the Crown(Jewish) imperialistic policy.
Robert Williams was an officer in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. He would receive the Navy Cross for his actions during the Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo.  In “Fecp and the Minority Machine”: "B'nai B'rith, the secret Jewish fraternity, was organized in 1843, awakening world Jewish aspirations, or Zionism, and its name, meaning "Sons of the Covenant," suggests that the 12 men who organized the fraternity aimed at bringing about the fulfillment of "the Covenant," or the supposed Messianic promise of rulership over all peoples. To rule all peoples, it is first necessary to bring them together in a world federation or world government - which is the avowed aim of both Communists and Zionists."
“In the year 1843 the Sons of the Covenant formed themselves into a body for the furtherance of the highest interests of Judaism...  This effort to unite Jews on the broadest principles of humanity with the specific objects of advancing their intellectual and moral interests and to protect their civil and political rights wherever threatened, has succeeded in creating an organization of about 600 constituent units spread over the whole of U.S.A. and in 28 other countries...  This vast network of Jewish endeavor in the Old and the New World, closely linked together in one united body, moved by a common ideal, represents the greatest organized force of modern times for the advancement of Jewish interests in the Diaspora.” - Paul Goodman - a past president of the B'nai B'rith, published by the London Lodge of the Order.
“Within the B'nai B'rith there is a machinery of leadership, perfected after ninety-seven years of experience for dealing with all matters that effect the Jewish people, whether it be a pogrom in some distant land, a hurricane in the tropics, the Jewish Youth in America, anti-Semitism aiding refugees, the preservation of Jewish cultural values... In other words B'nai B'rith is so organized that it can utilize its machinery to supply Jewish needs of almost every character.” - B'nai B'rith Magazine - September, 1940

http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Dickens/Carol/5.jpg A Christmas Carol is a novella by English author Charles Dickens first published 12/19 1843.  The story tells of sour and stingy Ebenezer Scrooge's ideological, ethical, and emotional transformation after the supernatural visits of Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come.  The novella met with instant success and critical acclaim.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSXju8cfT1VDKpTu7LDg690AUFkr0PRy2ZIIDEIIX8g63fh-78x Moses (Moshe) Hess (6/21, 1812 – 4/6, 1875) was a Jewish philosopher and one of the founders of socialism and a precursor to Zionism.  His works included Holy History of Mankind (1837), European Triarchy (1841) and Rome and Jerusalem (1862).  He married a Catholic working-class woman, Sibylle Pesch, in defiance of bourgeois values.
Hess originally advocated Jewish integration into the universalist socialist movement, and was a friend and collaborator of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Hess converted Engels to Communism, and introduced Marx to social and economic problems.  He played an important role in transforming Hegelian dialectical idealism theory of history to the dialectical materialism of Marxism, by conceiving of man as the initiator of history through his active consciousness.  Hess was probably responsible for several "Marxian" slogans and ideas, including religion as the "opiate of the people."  Hess became reluctant to base all history on economic causes and class struggle, and he came to see the struggle of races, or nationalities, as the prime factor of past history.
Hess's Rome and Jerusalem. The Last National Question went unnoticed in his time, along with the rest of his writings.  Most German Jews were bent on assimilation and did not heed Hess' unfashionable warnings.  His work did not stimulate any political activity or discussion.  Hess's contribution, like Leon Pinsker's Autoemancipation, became important only in retrospect, as the Zionist movement began to crystallize and to generate an audience in the late nineteenth century.  When Theodor Herzl first read Rome and Jerusalem he wrote about Hess that "since Spinoza jewry had no bigger thinker than this forgotton Moses Hess" and that he would not have written Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) if he had known Rome and Jerusalem beforehand.  Wladimir Ze'ev Jabotinsky honored Hess in The Jewish Legion in World War as one of those people that made the Balfour declaration possible, together with Herzl, Rothschild and Pinsker.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR-Lu-bpB5tsqhAc84gCVj-o23SMA6lhxxXKRpLFw1YU0ojj1zL_g http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR__YAJMP69hUgHCJ11fvt18TpKL-QcpegWsB5mpAYWN1TM1MW1 The YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) is a worldwide movement of more than 45 million members from 125 national federations affiliated through the World Alliance of YMCAs.  Founded on June 6, 1844 in London, England by Sir George Williams, the goal of the organization was putting Christian principles into practice, achieved by developing "a healthy spirit, mind, and body."  Today, YMCAs are open to all, regardless of faith, social class, age, or gender.  The World Alliance of YMCAs is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.  The YMCA's traditional symbol is the inverted triangle which represents three principles: Healthy spirit "Christian discipleship” (not any more);  Healthy mind; Healthy body.  The YMCA in the US expresses its mission: To put Christian principles in to practice through programs that build healthy spirit, mind and body for all.  In 2010, the US debated whether to drop the “Christian”. 
The YWCA USA (Young Women's Christian Association USA) was founded in the United Kingdom in 1855.  The YWCA is independent of the YMCA.  In the United Kingdom, the name has been truncated to YWCA.  Today the YWCA works worldwide to eliminate racism.  It has also been working to eliminate classism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, and discrimination based on disability.   Many branches in the US have also changed its name. An example is WCA: Women Children’s Alliance.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wy****Socialist Anti-Semitism - Hostility to the Jews began to emerge from the newly developing socialist movement.  First that Judaism begot Christianity, and second, the Jew as the embodiment of capitalism, the banker, the middle-man, the parasitic profiteer.  Bauer in 1842 wrote “The Jewish Question” where he argued against political equality for the Jews. Orthodox Judaism was, in his view, an anachronistic phenomenon, whereas Reform Judaism was worthless; the Jews had never contributed to the civilization of the world-arguments that were later to become the stock-in-trade of the anti-Semitic right.  Marx disputed Bauer's ideas on the ground that his view of the Jews as a religious group was distorted.  The true Jewish religion, Marx argued, was Schacher (haggling, huckstering) and their god was money.  Jews would first have to emancipate themselves from this "religion" of theirs; then their religious consciousness would disappear and human emancipation would be possible.       
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS7umhsI_YPIn6jISU3Y7nhW1lV9nt2uCi8tFy0x9YLItRDrWiH Bruno Bauer (9-6-1809- 4-13-1882) was a German theologian, philosopher and historian.  Bauer concluded that early Christianity owed more to Greek philosophy (Stoicism) than to Judaism.  The Jewish Question 1843 was written by Bruno Bauer.   Bauer depicted Judaism as a fossilized religion, based on superstition and obscurantism, whose deity was cruel, vengeful, stubborn and egotistical.
1843 Karl Marx responds to Bruno Bauer “On the Jewish Question”.  Marx is quite honest as he says “What is the secular basis of Judaism? -Practical need, self-interest.  What is the worldly religion of the Jew?  -Huckstering.  What is his worldly God?  -Money.”
__"Virtually every major figure in the early history of socialism -- including Friedrich Engels, Charles Fourier, Ferdinand Lasalle, Karl Marx, and Joseph Proudhon showed a marked antipathy to Jews."
E. Cannot, 19th century French reformer. In La Renovation, journal of the socialist school of CHARLES FOURIER.  "Jews! To the heights of your Sinai ... I humbly lift myself.  I stand erect and cry out to you, in behalf of all my humble equals, of all those whom your spoliation has brought to grief, who died in misery through you and whose trembling shades accuse you: Jews!  for Cain and Iscariot, leave us, leave us!  Ah, cross the Red Sea again, and go down there to the desert, to the promised land which is waiting for you, the only country fit for you; o you wicked, rude and dishonest people, go there!!! ("Israel")
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wy****Jewish Restoration
“Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews” (1844) by Mordecai M. Noah, (see 1818), was a US diplomat, publisher and author. He was also the leader of the Jewish community in America.   “Never were the prospects for the restoration of the Jewish nation to their ancient rights and dominion more brilliant than they are at present ... They will march in triumphant numbers ... and take their rank among the governments of the earth.”  Later, he called for action: “The Jewish people must now do something for themselves ... Syria (i.e., Palestine) will revert to the Jewish nation by purchase ... Under the co-operation and protection of England and France, this reoccupation of Syria ... is at once reasonable and practicable.”1837
In A Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews, the role formerly allotted to England and France is now given to America.: “I confidently believe in the restoration of the Jews ... and believing that political events are daily assuming a shape which may finally lead to that great advent, I consider it my duty to call upon the free people of this country to aid us in any efforts which, in our present position, it may be prudent to adopt.  Where can we plead the cause of independence for the children of Israel with greater confidence than in the cradle of liberty? ...
Here we can unfurl the standard, and seventeen millions of people will say ‘God is with you; we are with you; in his name and in the name of civil and religious liberty, go forth and repossess the land of your fathers.  We have advocated the independence of the South American republics ... we have combated for the independence of Greece ... if these nations were entitled to our sympathies, how much more powerful and irrepressible are the claims of that beloved people, before whom the Almighty ... swore they should be his people, and he would be their God; who for their protection and final restoration, dispersed them among the nations of the earth, without confounding them with any! ...’
The liberty and independence of the Jewish nation may grow out of a single effort which this country may make in their behalf ... they want only protection, and the work will be accomplished... The Jews are in a most favorable position to repossess ... the promised land, and organize a free and liberal government.... Every attempt to colonize Jews in other countries has failed ... The first step is to solicit from the Sultan of Turkey permission for the Jews to purchase and hold land… Those who desire to reside in the Holy Land and have not the means, may be aided by ... societies to reach their haven of repose ... Ports of the Mediterranean (will be) occupied by enterprising Jews.  The valley of the Jordan will be filled by agriculturists from ... Germany, Poland and Russia. 
Noah wrote these words a half-century before Theodor Herzl wrote Der Judenstaat, and more than a century before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. 

The Citizens Committee of New York (1843), composed of Jews, asked that “Conversations on Common Things”, “Murray’s English Reader”, Lessons for Schools”, “Taken from the Holy Scriptures”, and the Bible and other books be withdrawn from the schools for instilling Christian ideology and  guilt for the crucifixion.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTdwc_fEzJ47WujCnseieVX8m74v8PMyormiODWDqFPa2RSOHLb Dorothea Lynde Dix (4/4, 1802 – 7/17, 1887) was an social reformer on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the US Congress, created the first generation of mental asylums.  During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.  Dix wrote “Conversations on Common Things: Guide to Knowledge”(1824)(with 60 editions by 1869).  The final conversation celebrated the perfection and triumph of Christ and remonstrated that “the Gospel was first sent to them (the Jews), but they, with the exception of a few disciples, rejected its precepts, and ignominiously crucified their Savior”.
“The English Reader” (1799), by Lindley Murray, a Quaker minister and prior to McGuffey the best-selling American textbook writer, surpassed 200 editions by 1842 and continued to be frequently reissued through the 1850’s.  It included references to “our blessed Redeemer” and “our Lord” and the selection of “Paul’s Defense before Festus and Agrippa” (Acts 26).
“Lessons for Schools” (1818-19), by Stephen Grellet and William Allen, was reprinted four times by 1865 and adopted by school systems in New York and other cities and in Europe.  Grellet was a Quaker minister, a missionary and a social reformer who opposed slavery and labored to improve conditions for the poor.    It was designed to impart Christian doctrine and showed that Christ was the son of God and the true Messiah, and that Judaism was a misdirected relic.  Excerpts blamed the Jews for the betrayal and ordeal of Jesus and for the persecution of his followers.
As late as 1950, several leading world-history texts stated flatly that Jews killed Jesus.



1845         1845         1845         1845
Photo of James K. Polk  James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was President of the United States (1845–1849).  Polk was a leader of Jacksonian Democracy during the Second Party System.   Polk is noted for his foreign policy successes.  He threatened war with Britain then backed away and split the ownership of the Oregon region (the Pacific Northwest) with Britain.  When Mexico rejected American annexation of Texas, Polk led the nation to a sweeping victory in the Mexican–American War, followed by purchase of California, Arizona, and New Mexico.  He established a treasury system that lasted until 1913.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcROGJJv7v5pbKPgNUtyd5AiM3j-ORzW4PaQUS8JDDu2VyGxUyYL Frederick Douglass (Feb 1818 – 2/20, 1895) was a social reformer, orator, writer and statesman.  After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing.  Douglass wrote several autobiographies, eloquently describing his experiences in slavery in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became influential in its support for abolition.  Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all people, whether black, female, Native American, or recent immigrant, famously quoted as saying, "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong".   Douglass was financially supported by Jews and was ignorant of Jewish slavers and later Jewish slumlords.
http://www.todayifoundout.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/johnny-appleseed.jpg Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman) (9/26, 1774 – 3/18, 1845) was a pioneer Nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.  He became a legend while still alive, largely because of his kind and generous ways, his great leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importance he attributed to apples.  He was also a missionary for The New Church, or Swedenborgian Church. 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Karl_Reichenbach.jpg/200px-Karl_Reichenbach.jpg Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (2/12, 1788 – 1/1869) was a notable chemist, geologist, metallurgist, naturalist, industrialist and philosopher, and a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences.  He is best known for his discoveries of several chemical products of economic importance, extracted from tar, such as eupione, waxy paraffin, pittacol (the first synthetic dye) and phenol (an antiseptic).  He also dedicated himself in his last years to research an unproved field of energy combining electricity, magnetism and heat, emanating from all living things, which he called the Odic force.  Influenced by the works of Franz Anton Mesmer he hypothesized that the condition could be affected by environmental electromagnetism, but finally his investigations led him to propose a new imponderable force allied to magnetism, which he thought was an emanation from most substances, a kind of "life principle" which permeates and connects all living things.  To this vitalist manifestation he gave the name Odic force.  The Odic force was coined the name from that of the Norse god Odin in 1845.

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRhUjCxEAQ-OpSY6ZZfH90TeZRTHlQkhMy_BgB8cm-8sR5YQ9mL Alphonse Toussenel (3/17, 1803 – 4/30, 1885) was a French writer and journalist.  He was a utopian socialist who criticized the economic liberalism of the July Monarchy.  Utopian socialist and a disciple of Charles Fourier, he was Anglophobic and denounced the ills of civilization: individualism, egoism and class conflict.  However, he was also the founder of modern French anti-Semitism.  In 1845 he wrote “The Jews, Kings of the Epoch”.  In The Mole-Rat: ‘Virgil has unwittingly defined the mole, thus: Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, CUI LUMEN ADEMPTUM!’ “A hideous, shapeless, colossal monster, who cannot see at all. The Mole is, in effect, the most monstrous of all created beings.  It has the greatest muscular power of any quadruped; it is the most bloodthirsty of carnivores.  It is the most complete of all of the mammals, not excepting man; it is the champion best armed for war, for labor, and for love.”
Toussenel had the love for the poor, the suffering and the humble; hatred for the swindler, the thief, the trafficker in human flesh.  Wrote “The Jews, the Kings of the Epoch” and exposed the Jews’ filthy bargains and exploitations.  The everyday life of Rothschild is drawn in all its rottenness, as well as that of the Jews Leon Say, John Lemoinne, Aaron Raffalowich, and of others who obtained official positions and concessions through blackmail and bribery.  Jewish monopoly or the Jewish feudality is described in the following manner :  "It is a pity that Montesquieu failed to define the industrial feudality.  We might have expected upon this subject some piquant revelations from the witty thinker who said, 'The financiers sustain a State as the cord sustains the hanged.'  The industrial, financial or commercial feudality does not rest either upon honor or upon honors. ...  It has for basis the commercial monopoly, the character of which is insatiate cupidity, the mother of swindles, bad faith and coalition, stamped with the mark of falsehood and of iniquity. ...”  "If anarchy claims to strike the rich and respect the poor, it is not the same with the despotism of commercial feudality.”  "Monopoly invades the hut of the poor as it does the palaces of princes.”  “Every kind of food is suited to its voracity. Like the subtle mercury, which, both by its weight and its fluidity, introduces itself into all the pores, like the hideous tape-worm whose parasitical circlets follow in their circumvolutions all the viscera of the human body, in the same manner monopoly, which is personified in the Jew, causes its suckers to run to the extreme ramifications of the social organism, in order to pump out of it every substance which can strengthen its tentacles.  The tone of monopoly is egotism, which seeks in vain to dissimulate its nature under the cloak of a hypocritical philanthropy.  Its device is, ‘Every one for himself.'  The words country, religion and faith, have no meaning for these men who have a money-bag in the place of a heart.”  "Country the Jew has not.  Where gold is to be found there is his country.  Monopoly, I repeat it, is personified in the Jew.  The religion of the Jews tramples under foot Christ, and spits in his face in order to acquire the exclusive right to traffic with the Japanese."  No one better than Toussenel has depicted the conquest of all Christian governments by the Jews.  "The Jew has struck all governments with a new mortgage, a mortgage that Christian States will never pay off with their revenues."
“I call as the people with that contemptuous name of Jew all those who traffic in money, all unproductive parasites living off the substance and labor of others.  Jew, usurer and trader are all synonyms for me.  That horde of usurers and lepers, a burden against all mankind since the dawn of the ages and which drags its hatred against other peoples and its incorrigible haughtiness all over the globe... The people of Satan, not the people of God; and the God of the Jewish people is no other indeed than Satan...  Europe is entailed to the domination of Israel.  This universal dominion, of which so many conquerors have dreamed, the Jews have in their hands.  The God of Judah has kept his word to the prophets and has given victory to the sons of the Maccabees.  Jerusalem has imposed tribute on all the empires.” (Les Juifs, rois de l'epoque, preface)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Eug%C3%A8ne_Sue_3.jpg/235px-Eug%C3%A8ne_Sue_3.jpg Joseph Marie Eugène Sue (1/20, 1804 – 8/3, 1857) was a French novelist.  He was strongly affected by the Socialist ideas of the day, and these prompted his most famous works, the "anti-Catholic" novels: including "The Wandering Jew" (10 vols., 1844–1845), which were among the most popular specimens of the serial novel.  He followed up with Seven Deadly Sins, Les Mystères du peuple (1849–1856), which was suppressed by the censor in 1857.  Les Mystères was later plagiarized by Jew Maurice Joly in The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu.   It is rumored that Sue had a copy of the novel bound in the very skin of a woman who loved him – a most shocking example of anthropodermic bibliopegy.  His period of greatest success and popularity coincided with that of Alexandre Dumas.  In 1844-1845, Sue wrote “The Wandering Jew,” a lengthy saga about the fight of an immortal Jew against the evil forces of the Jesuits and their satanic leader, Rodin, who are plotting to take over the world. In another of Sue’s books, “The Mystery of the People” (1848-1856), we find a document sent to Rodin, the Jesuit villain by the general of the society father Roothaan, (historical figure), describing a Jesuit plot to take over the human race, a plot in which “the end sanctifies the means.” Rudolf hero of Sue famous pervious novel MYSTERES DE PARIS comes into possession of the document and reveals it to the other democracy-loving characters :”You see my dear lebrenn. How cunningly this infernal plot is ordered ‘and what frightful sorrows ,what horrendous enslavement ,what terrible despotism it would spell for Europe and the world ,were it to succeed…”

http://www.josephhaworth.com/images/Playwrights/Alexandre%20Dumas%20fils/Alexandre_Dumas_fils_headshot_1864-Photo-BW-Resized.jpg Alexandre Dumas (7/24, 1802 – 12/5, 1870) was a French writer, known for his historical novels of high adventure.  His novels, include “The Count of Monte Cristo” (1845) and “The Three Musketeers” (1844).  Dumas was the grandson of a French nobleman and a Haitian slave.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Maurice_Joly.jpg/170px-Maurice_Joly.jpg Maurice Joly, (Joseph Levy) (1829—1878) was a French Jew satirist and lawyer known for his work titled The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, allegedly  used as a basis for The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.  Joly was a lifelong Mason and member of the "Lodge of Mizraim." He was the protege of Adolph Cremieux (Isaac Moise Cremieux 1796-1880) the head of the lodge and a Minister in the Jewish-backed government of Leon Gambetta.  Seven years after Sue’s book came out, a revolutionary by the name of Maurice Joly lifted whole passages from it and used them in a mock dialogue between Machiavelli and the Reformist philosopher Montesquieu as the two sit in hell.  Joly insinuated that Napoleon III was trying to overthrow the world.  Joly’s book was banned in France and he was thrown into jail.  
[[The ‘true’ origin of the protocols, according to novelist and scholar Umberto Eco, who has researched the subject, goes back to the adventure stories featuring long dialogues and convoluted plots that appeared in installments in popular French newspapers.  In these stories, brave heroes rescued beautiful maidens from the clutches of evil rich men and scheming Jesuit priests.  Even famous authors like Alexander Dumas and Eugene Sue wrote such stories.]]
****(See Protocols under 1905) Of course, these Protocols have been considered a forgery, but similar listings have appeared in Jewish Sanhedrins and culture throughout Jewish history in the West and each of these items have come to fruition.
****Plagiarism, Forgery, etc: Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous boundaries.  If it is a report of an earlier account, it is not plagiarism.  Though plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, it does not exist in a legal sense.  "Plagiarism" is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil.  
In criminal law, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent.  A hoax also involves deception, but without the intention of gain or of damaging or depriving the victim.
Literary forgery (also literary mystification, literary fraud or literary hoax) refers to writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work, either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or a purported memoir presented as genuine.  The forger must produce a writing which resembles the style of the known reputable author to whom the fake is to be attributed.  The forger may also fake the physical alleged original manuscript. The genre of false and deceptive autobiography or fake memoirs has seen the rise of misery lit books, where the author has claims having suffered illness, abuse, drugs, and so on during their upbringing.  
(From Wikipedia): The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was a forged document that was ignored by scholars until recently.  The abridged version was available to the public in 1903.  The unabridged version was later edited by a retired officer of the Russian Imperial Guard, G. V. Butmi. This forgery exploits Jews by stating that Jews were inevitably trying to coup Christianity to essentially rule the world.  This document was an anti-Semitic piece that was in effect written by members of the Russian secret police at the time. The document was exposed as plagiarism by English Journalist Philip Graves in 1921.  Graves generally exposed the extreme similarities in the political satire by Maurice Joly, The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu.  It was also supported by Henry Ford in his newspaper, the Dearborn Independent. [Why is this example so distinctly given in this Wikipedia article?  Me thinks thou does protest too much.]  (Again, please see the Protocols under 1905.)
When a Court has declared the Protocols a Plagiarism or Forgery, one must take into account the legal terms of Plagiarism or Forgery as opposed to other terms and take into account the number of Jews involved in the court’s decision. 
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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/David_Levy_Yulee_-_Brady-Handy.jpg/220px-David_Levy_Yulee_-_Brady-Handy.jpg David Levy Yulee, born David Levy (6/12, 1810 – 10/10, 1886) was a politician and attorney from Florida, a territorial delegate to Congress, the first Jewish member of the US Senate, and a member of the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War.  He founded the Florida Railroad Company and served as president of several other companies, earning the nickname of "Father of Florida Railroads". In 2000 he was recognized as that year's "Great Floridian" by the state.  He played an active role in the war with the Seminole Indians and in pre-Anschluss Florida, where he had vast land holdings in the vicinity of St. Augustine.  It is believed that he was Florida's richest citizen in 1845.

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR2h3HECbwnpVw1PrS_RVDDVzbIbLsGPqqqcGAmVZXpJQLvM1HTEQ ****Irish Famine by British capitalist policies.  The Great Famine or Irish Potato Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852 during which the island's population fell by between 20 and 25 percent.  About one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.  The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as potato blight.  Starting in 1801, Ireland had been directly governed by the United Kingdom.  In the forty years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, and an alien Church, and in addition the weakest executive in the world."
In the 1600s and 1700s, Irish Catholics had been prohibited by the penal laws from owning land, from leasing land; from voting, from holding political office; from living in a corporate town or within five miles of a corporate town, from obtaining education, from entering a profession, and from doing many other things that are necessary in order to succeed and prosper in life.   Catholic emancipation had been achieved in 1829, and Catholics made up 80 percent of the population, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity.  At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish families who owned most of the land, and who had more or less limitless power over their tenants.  Many of these landlords lived in England and were called "absentee landlords".  They took rents from "impoverished tenants" paid minimal wages to raise crops and livestock for export.  Ireland was a conquered country.  The peasantry could not get ahead and lived day by day.
This also delivered an extremely cheap workforce and with very low living standards.  Traditionally, “The Celtic grazing lands of... Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries.  The British colonized... the Irish, transforming much of their countryside into an extended grazing land to raise cattle for a hungry consumer market at home... The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of... Ireland... Pushed off the best pasture land and forced to farm smaller plots of marginal land, the Irish turned to the potato, a crop that could be grown abundantly in less favorable soil.  Eventually, cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population virtually dependent on the potato for survival.
Once it was introduced the blight spread rapidly.  By late summer and early autumn of 1845 it had spread throughout the greater part of northern and central Europe.  Belgium, Holland, northern France and southern England by mid-August had all been stricken.  Crop loss in 1845 has been estimated at a high of 50% to one third.  In 1846 three-quarters of the harvest was lost to blight.  As over 3 million Irish people were totally dependent on potatoes for food, hunger and famine were inevitable.

1846 World Evangelical Alliance (WEA) (& World Evangelical Fellowship) is a global ministry working with local churches around the world to join in common concern to live and proclaim the "Good News of Jesus" in their communities.  WEA is a network of churches in 128 nations that have each formed an evangelical alliance and over 100 international organizations joining together to give a worldwide identity, voice and platform to more than 600 million evangelical Christians.  Seeking holiness, justice and renewal at every level of society - individual, family, community and culture - it's aim is uniting to transform the nations so that God is glorified.
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTaWDrVRh1L1p21YsVcJLpiQsONt1gFbrC9iVTHLh4QbXnFK7MoPw Georg Friedrich Daumer (3/5, 1800-1875).  In 1832, he began religious-philosophical writings which criticized Protestant Christianity and especially Pietism and were influenced by Hegel and Schelling.  In (The Secrets of Christian Antiquity)(1847), Daumer even criticized the person of Jesus Christ, in contrast to the later Friedrich Nietzsche, who never did.  He described his own very Romantic world view as "theistic naturalism" or "theistic materialism."  Daumer wrote of ‘cannibalism in the Talmud’, human blood being drunk on Purim and the ‘bloody mysteries of the Rabbanites and Talmudists, the Sabbateans who border on Christianity, and the Hassidic sects who are so numerous in Slavic lands’.  He also wrote “The Worship of Moloch among the Hebrews of Antiquity”.  F.W. Ghillany, wrote “Human Sacrifices among the Jews of Old” with similar conclusions.  “To these reminiscences of Phoenician abominations there was added a strange, but excusable, sentiment. The Jew was troubled by that atmosphere of ardent faith that reigned around him during the first centuries of Christianity, and was awed by the miracles performed by the saints.  In vain did he try to oppose himself to the truth.  He had moments of terrible anxiety.  He was moved by the clear sense of certain prophecies, and he believed that if Christ was the Messiah, a drop of a Christian's blood absorbed by one who was circumcised was sufficient for his salvation.”  “Refutation of the Religion of the Jews”, written by a converted rabbi, contains full directions for the use of human blood in the various ceremonies of the Jews for their funerals, as well as the Purim, etc.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ghillany (4/18, 1807 -6/26, 1876) was a German Protestant theologian, historian and writer.

Popepiusix.jpg  Pius IX, #255 served from 6/16, 1846– 2/7, 1878 Opened First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Longest serving pope in history
1846 –The Jewish Oath abolished in Austria
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wy http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSCtnMvbCAzqL85is3YbaW9DdzgQ9zl7QKRxz7XTBdnXg6CAZv2BA ****The Oath More Judaico or Jewish Oath was a special form of oath, accompanied by certain ceremonies and often intentionally humiliating or dangerous, that Jews were required to take in European courts of law.  More Judaico is Latin for "on/by the Jewish custom".  The question of the trustworthiness of the Jewish oath was connected with the Jewish insincerity of the Kol Nidre prayer.  Byzantine emperor Justinian I had declared that neither Jews nor heretics should be admitted as witnesses against Christians.  In the safe conducts issued by the Carolingian kings in the 9th century, Jews and Christians were treated as equals.  Most nations did use the Jewish Oath: The Byzantine Empire, 10th century: the Jew would wear a girdle of thorns around his loins, stand in water, and swear by "Barase Baraa" (Bereshit Bara), so that if he spoke untruth, he would be swallowed by the earth just like Dathan and Abiram in Numbers 16:1–27.  Arles (c. 1150): a wreath of thorns would be hung on the swearer's neck, others would grovel at his knees, and a thorn branch five ells in length would be pulled "between his loins" while he swore and called down upon himself all the curses of the Torah.  Swabia (13th century): the Jew would stand on the hide of a sow or a bloody lamb.  Silesia (1422): the Jew would stand on a three-legged stool and have to pay a fine each time he fell, finally losing his case if he fell four times.  Dortmund: the Jew would be fined each time he halted in repeating the oath.  Vrbové, Hungary (1517): the Jew would stand barefooted and swear with his face turned to the east, holding the Pentateuch in his hand.  Breslau (c. 1455): the Jew would stand bareheaded and pronounce the name of Yahweh.
The following formula, originally in Middle High German, was used in Frankfurt on the Main about 1392:     The Jew shall stand on a sow's skin and the five books of Master Moses shall lie before him, and his right hand up to the wrist shall lie on the book and he shall repeat after him who administers the oath of the Jews: ‘Regarding such property of which the man accuses you, you know nothing of it, nor do you have it. You never had it in your possession, you do not have it in any of your chests, you have not buried it in the earth, nor locked it with locks, so help you God who created heaven and earth, valley and hill, woods, trees, and grass, and so help you the law which God himself created and wrote with His own hand and gave Moses on Sinai's mount.  And so help you the five books of Moses that you may nevermore enjoy a bite without soiling yourself all over as did the King of Babylon.  And may that sulphur and pitch flow down upon your neck that flowed over Sodom and Gomorrah, and the same pitch that flowed over Babylon flow over you, but two hundred times more, and may the earth envelop and swallow you up as it did Dathan and Abiram. And may your dust never join other dust, and your earth never join other earth in the bosom of Master Abraham if what you say is not true and right. [This refers either to a decent burial or to resurrection.] And so help you Adonai, you have sworn the truth.  If not, may you become as leprous as Naaman and Gehazi, and may the calamity strike you that the Israelite people escaped as they journeyed forth from Egypt's land. And may a bleeding and a flowing come forth from you and never cease, as your people wished upon themselves when they condemned God, Jesus Christ, among themselves, and tortured Him and said: Matthew 27:25 "His blood be upon us and our children." It is true, so help you God who appeared to Moses in a burning bush which yet remained unconsumed. It is true by the oath that you have sworn, by the soul which you bring on the Day of Judgment before the Court, [before the God of] Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It is true, so help you God and the oath you have sworn. [Amen].
The German-Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn of the Enlightenment persuaded the Prussian government to moderate the terms of the oath during the 18th century. Prussia retained the obnoxious formula until March 15, 1869; the Netherlands modified the oath in 1818, and Russia in 1838 and 1860.  The Jewish advocate Isaac Adolphe Crémieux won great fame by effecting the abolition of the oath through a case brought before the court of Nîmes in 1827.  Lazard Isidor, as rabbi of Pfalzburg, refused in 1839 to open the synagogue for such an oath; prosecuted for contempt of court, he was defended by Crémieux and acquitted.  The French Supreme Court finally declared the oath unconstitutional on March 3, 1846. However, as late as 1902, a court in Romania upheld that country's version of the oath.
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTR88IanK4iGHbKVHxCXrBhGnj6vCe1O7g1GL5Dppces8tjeVdxMQ Herz Cerfbeer of Medelsheim (Naphtali Ben Dov-Beer)(1730- 12/7, 1793) was a French Jew.  Extract from his book "The Church and Synagogue," published in 1847, page 230: "That the Jews of France beware, they run no doubt a reaction which we would prevent disastrous effects for our advice and warnings.  They do not realize how many homes morality is released, abandoned.  How many ideas and sordid greed of gain easy, dazzling them astray.  A simple approximation of statistical calculation will easily understand all the truth and the scope of our thinking."  In his book "The Jews" Paris, 1857, page 39, the author tells us: "This is the great plague of our time.  Wear is committed in our country with as much effrontery as impunity.  The small property is consumed by this canker that eats everything.  It would take a volume to enumerate the shameful and treacherous means employed by the Jews to bring them all parcels of land that excite their greed and we do not know if it will be in the spirit of our modern laws some fairly strong for stop the progress of this evil, when will be obliged to refer to the legislature.  No longer are the Jews who cover the bag of pain, it is the peasants of our country who are grieving the iniquities of Israel. "
“Warmed by the sun of the Orient, the Jew of the South is at times physically beautiful.  It is not rare to find in him preserved the Arab type in all its purity. A few recall, with their mild, velvet-like, caressing eyes, their ebon hair, some comparison of the Moorish kings or of a Castilian Hidalgo. They are obliged, however, to keep their hands gloved, for this greedy, avaricious, low race quickly manifests itself by the curved fingers, which are ever restless, ever ready to seize or to rob.”  “The German Jews have none of the above personal advantages.  Their weak, glassy eyes seldom look you straight in the face.  Their skin is yellowish, and their hair often of the same disagreeable color.  Their beard, almost always of a reddish hue, is now and then black, but of a faded black which recalls an old Prince Albert coat.  He is the type of the old slave-trader, of the lowest kind of usurer. Good fortune never changes him while touching him with its wand.  When one sees him driving in his magnificent carriage, one is reminded of itinerant venders in thread and needles, and of money-lenders of the Shylock kind. In a word, the German Jew is a vain, ignorant, tricky, ungrateful, low, creeping, insolent, dirty, ill-smelling fellow.  The German Jewess is imperious, credulous, prone to blackmail, and seldom faithful to her conjugal ties.”  Medelsheim also brings against the rabbis accusations that we do not reproduce, because never does a Christian writer attack a priest, no matter to what religion he may be long.  He leaves this task to the writers of the Jewish press.
And later, around 1840-48, this is what Professor lorga: "One could count these establishments of exploitation and depravation by the score, tavern by tavern, with bottles of potato whiskey and other poisons, all across Moldavia, exhausting a race for the feeding of the civilized vices of the domineering class"
In his 1847 essay, “Les Juifs,” the journalist and author, Alphonse Cerfberr de Me(n)delsheim tells us this: “They fill in proportion, thanks to their insistence, more posts than the other communities, Catholic and Protestant. Their disastrous influence makes itself felt above all in affairs which have most weight in the fortune of the country.  There is no enterprise in which the Jews have not their large share, no public loan which they do not monopolize, no disaster which they have not prepared and by which they do not profit.  It is therefore, ill-considered to complain, as they always do, they who have all the favors and who make all the profits!” 
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS2FV4ZKNq-pAMDL4k7vP6-Cor1pgG3QmvqIkP2QrkeMVz1iufn Washington Irving (4/3, 1783 – 11/28, 1859) was an author, essayist, biographer and historian.  He is best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle", both of which appear in his book “The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent”.  His historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra.  Irving also served as the U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846.  The genial storyteller and historian occasionally used phrases like "some mode of screwing and Jewing the world out of more interest than one's money is entitled to." (Letter of April 30, 1847. Life and Letters.)
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRMY2Nu1_4V9SKeLbMIbClCR7XG2wY_LeuCevSFCB7ovG70fi46EQ ****1848 European Revolutions:
The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, or Springtime of the Peoples were described by some as a revolutionary wave, the period of unrest began in France and then, further propelled by the French Revolution of 1848, soon spread to the rest of Europe.  Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Russian Empire (including Congress Poland), and the Ottoman Empire were the only major European states to go without a national revolution over this period.  Sweden and Norway were little affected.  Serbia, though formally unaffected by the revolt, actively supported the Serbian revolution in the Habsburg Empire.  In the Netherlands no major unrests appeared because the king Willem II decided to alter the constitution to prevent any such revolution.  Switzerland and Portugal were also spared in 1848, though both had gone through civil wars in the preceding years.  The introduction of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848 was a revolution of sorts, laying the foundation of Swiss society as it is today.
In the first half of the 19th century, both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments.  Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes.  A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to spring up.  There were a series of economic downturns and crop failures, particularly those in the year 1846, produced starvation among peasants and the working urban poor.
Large swathes of the nobility were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism.  In 1846 there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, which was only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles.  Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia occurred in Greater Poland.
Next the middle classes began to agitate.  Working class objectives tended to fall in line with those of the middle class.  The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, and agreed on many of the specific aims.  Their participations in the revolutions, however, differed.  While much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower.  The revolts first erupted in the cities.
The population in French rural areas had rapidly risen, causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities.  Many in the bourgeoisie feared and distanced themselves from the working poor, who had shown their muscle in 1789.  The uneducated, teeming masses seemed a fertile breeding ground of vice.  Urban industrial workers toiled from 13 to 15 hours per day, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums.  Traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization, having lost their guilds.  Social critics such as Marx became popular, and secret societies sprang up.  At the time of the Revolution, there was widespread unemployment as a result of an economic crisis that began in 1846, and workers agitated for the right to vote and for state subsidies to the major trades.
In the years 1845 and 1846, a potato blight, originating in Belgium, caused a subsistence crisis in Northern Europe, especially manifested in the Great Irish Famine (where it was combined with rack-rents and concurrent export of cash crops.
Aristocratic wealth (and corresponding power) was synonymous with the ownership of land.  Owning land at this time was practically synonymous with having peasants under one's control, often duty-bound to labor for their masters.  In a problem mirroring that of slaveholders in the United States, a principal aristocratic problem was controlling one's laborers.  Peasant grievances exploded during the revolutionary year of 1848.
Until 1789, with the advent of the French Revolution, there had been no significant challenges to the rule of kings in continental Europe.  In 1815, after Napoleon, a close resemblance of the Ancien Régime was restored at the Congress of Vienna.  This was no sooner established when the monarchies, the church, and the aristocracy were again threatened. There were revolutions or civil wars in France (1789 and after), Ireland (1798), as well as Mexico, which split from Spain between 1810 and 1821.  A revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands resulted in the secession of the southern provinces and the formation of the Kingdom of Belgium in 1830, a year that also saw another revolution in France. Unrest was in the air.
Despite forceful and often violent efforts of established powers to keep them down, disruptive ideas gained popularity: democracy, liberalism, nationalism, and socialism.  In short, democracy meant universal male suffrage.  Liberalism fundamentally meant consent of the governed and the restriction of church and state power, republican government, freedom of the press and the individual.  Nationalism believed in uniting people bound by (some mix of) common languages, culture, religion, shared history, and of course immediate geography; there were also irredentist movements.  At this time, what are now Germany and Italy were collections of small states.  Socialism in the 1840s was a term without a consensus definition, meaning different things to different people, but was typically used within a context of more power for workers in a system based on worker ownership of the means of production.
Events: France, German states, Denmark, Schleswig, Habsburg Empire: ruled from Vienna, included Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Croats, Slovaks, Ukrainians/Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbs and Italians, all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities; Switzerland, Wallachia, Brazil, Belgium,
By 1858, some historians consider the revolutions a failure, given the seeming lack of permanent structural changes.  On the other hand, both Germany and Italy achieved political unification over the next two decades.  Austria and Prussia eliminated feudalism by 1850, improving the lot of the peasants.  European middle classes made political and economic gains over the next twenty years; France retained universal male suffrage.  Russia would later free the serfs on February 19, 1861.  The Habsburgs finally had to give the Hungarians more self-determination.  Denmark reformed and the Netherlands revised their constitution.
But in 1848, the revolutionaries were idealistic and divided by the multiplicity of aims for which they fought—social, economic, liberal, and national.  Conservative forces exploited these divisions, and revolutionaries suffered from mediocre leadership.  Middle-class revolutionaries feared the lower classes, evidencing different ideas; counter-revolutions exploited the gaps.  As some reforms were enacted and the economy improved, some revolutionaries were mollified.  When the Habsburgs lightened the burden of feudalism, many peasants were satisfied by the reforms and lost interest in further revolt; revolutions elsewhere met similar resolutions. International support likewise waned.  The net result in the German states and France was more autocratic systems, despite reforms such as universal male suffrage in France, and strong social class systems remained in both.  What reforms were enacted seemed like sops thrown to quell dissent, while privilege remained untouched.  Nationalistic dreams also failed in 1848.
The Italian and German movements did provide an important impetus. Italy was unified in 1861, while Germany in 1871 was unified under Bismarck after Germany's 1870 war with France.  Some disaffected German bourgeois liberals (especially Jews)(the Forty-Eighters, many atheists and freethinkers) migrated to the United States after 1848, taking their money, intellectual talents, and skills out of Germany.
15288394484500587470.JPG1848 Revolution Vienna, Austria, The Jews have the Gentiles in a Vice.
http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/essays&editorials/images/A%20popular%20anti-Semitic%20subject%20is%20the%20Jew%20as%20a%20coward%20and%20as%20physically%20weak.%20%201848%20Vienna.jpg ~1848 Jew as a coward

****Communism is the classic ‘squeeze play” having populist revolutions funded by the elites.  Within Communism there is no private property, but it is managed by the Elite.  The Capitalism of moral philosopher Adam Smith evolved through the years to become Monopolistic or Financial Capitalism with the Elite in control of the People.  Both involve a chosen elite managing the lives of all.  National Socialism was the Third way which looked towards the sanctity of property ownership and individual initiative with a basic social umbrella for all.  All history is written with bias.  Between the above Communism and Capitalism are many forms of socialism which are for the people and their freedoms.  During the Cold War, nations invaded by the Reds or the Yanks were sometimes on the right road of equity and justice for their people. 
“You never observe a great intellectual movement in Europe in which the Jews do not greatly participate.  The first Jesuits were Jews; that mysterious Russian Diplomacy which so alarms Western Europe is organized and principally carried on by Jews; that mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany, and which will be, in fact, a second and greater Reformation, and of which so little is as yet known in England, is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews, who almost monopolize the professorial chairs of Germany.” Benjamin Disraeli (Coningsby).
“An insurrection takes place against tradition and aristocracy, against religion and property... The natural equality of men and abrogation of property are proclaimed by the Secret Societies which form Provisional Governments, and men of the Jewish race are found at the head of every one of them.  The people of God co-operate with atheists; most skillful accumulators of property ally themselves with Communists; the peculiar and chosen race touch the hand of all the scum and low castes of Europe; and all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom which owes them even its name, and whose tyranny they can no longer endure.
“When the Secret Societies, in February, 1848, surprised Europe, they were themselves surprised by the unexpected opportunity, and so little capable were they of seizing the occasion, that had it not been for the Jews, who of late years unfortunately have been connecting themselves with these unhallowed associations, imbecile as were the governments, the uncalled-for outbreak would not have ravaged Europe.  But the fiery energy, and the teeming resources of the Children of Israel maintained for a long time the unnecessary and useless struggle. If the reader throws his eyes over the provisional governments of Germany and Italy, and even France, formed at that period, he will recognize everywhere the Jewish element. - Benjamin Disraeli
The socialism that emerged after the 1848 revolution was accompanied by ideological attacks on the Jews.
For Jews 1848 double edged.  The liberal constitution enacted a great principle that remained barely fulfilled, for its implementation depended on the individual states.  In the very heat of revolutionary ardor counter-emancipatory trends came alive, and their pressure on the state governments was irresistible.  When news of the revolution in Paris reached the peasants in the Rhineland, they too revolted, seizing land, destroying tax and tithe records, burning castles, and pogromizing Jews.  Revolutionary propaganda called for wiping out the nobility, assassinating the officials, establishing a republic, and expelling the Jews from Germany.  The popular agitation in many states brought about restrictions of Jewish rights or failure even to grant them.  In Bavaria, for example, petitions with eighty thousand signatures submitted to the Chamber of Reich Counselors opposing Jewish emancipation succeeded in their purpose.
The Conservative party was founded in 1848 as a vehicle for the counterrevolution, and the 1850s witnessed the expansion and elaboration of an anti-Semitism that was not only political, but also Volkist.
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSDn_IiHSvfxY08xnKkEHyrD2MNutQxQz6cnj-5dmmDdgZDrybB http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRNrPbyxSXJ2X-Imu4hcBVv2gacJZ5RbYMy8umUzhiM-DsluGZl Karl Heinrich Marx (Moses Levy)(5/5, 1818 – 3/14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist, and revolutionary, whose ideas are credited as the foundation of modern communism. 
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRBpwYcKO-EA6KbwLCO3UiUc1jD7pdG0LGsiobXbo4gyaNEeVVx http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTGnATKj5uOeibXNIQIqnq7cpD6VudwNDmua5GCI22Xe8VgY4L2 Friedrich Engels (11/28, 1820 – 8/5, 1895) was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
“The Communist Manifesto”, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published on February 21, 1848 is one of the world's most historically influential political tracts.  Commissioned by the Communist League and written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, it laid out the League's purposes and program. The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow capitalism and, eventually, to bring about a classless society.
"The credit system, which has its focal point in the allegedly national banks and the big money-lenders and usurers that surround them, is one enormous centralization and gives this class of parasites a fabulous power not only to decimate the industrial capitalists periodically but also to interfere in actual production in the most dangerous manner - and this crew know nothing of production and have nothing at all to do with it." - Marx, Capital, vol. 3, chap. 33
Marx and Engels were astute to the criticisms of Capitalism which made and still makes Communism attractive.  Without understanding the faults of Communism it is easy to portray it as more sensitive to the needs of society.  Here, Karl Marx with a correct assessment of Capitalism:
"The capitalist continually seeks to get the best of competition by restlessly introducing further subdivision of labor.  The greater division of labor enables one laborer to accomplish the work of five, 10, or 20 laborers.  The special skill of the laborer becomes worthless.  The laborer is transformed into a simple monotonous force of production, with neither physical nor mental elasticity.  We have hastily sketched in broad outlines the industrial war of capitalists among themselves.  This war has the peculiarity that the battles in it are won less by recruiting than by discharging the army of workers.  The economists tell us that those laborers who have been rendered superfluous by machinery find new venues of employment. Strictly speaking, economists only maintain that new means of employment will be found for other sections of the working class; for example, for that portion of the young generation of laborers who were about to enter upon that branch of industry which had just been abolished.   Even if we assume that all who are directly forced out of employment by machinery, as well as all of the rising generation who were waiting for a chance of employment in the same branch of industry, do actually find some new employment – are we to believe that this new employment will pay as high wages as did the one they have lost? " - Karl Heinrich Marx (Because of a change of law which forbid Jews to practice law Karl Marx's father changed his surname from Mordechai to Marx and converted to Lutheranism from Talmudism so he could continue to sustain his family as a lawyer.)
Marx is also reputed to have been responsible for the following utterances: “To destroy Christianity, we must first destroy the British Empire. 
“Religion is the opiate of the people, and for that reason it is to be used as a principal means of disarming the gentile, and, once in power, through the pulpit and prayers, to keep him subjugated and subdued. 
“Take away the heritage of a people and they are easily persuaded. 
“The education of all children, from the moment that they can get along without a mother's care, shall be in state institutions at state expense. 
“For the bureaucrat, the world is a mere object to be manipulated by him. 
“The meaning of peace is the absence of opposition to socialism. 
“The surest way to overturn the social order is to debauch the currency. 
“Free trade breaks up old nationalities... In a word, the free trade system hastens the social revolution. Gentlemen, I am in favor of free trade. 
“If you can cut the people off from their history, then they can be easily persuaded. 
“My object in life is to dethrone God and destroy capitalism. 
“What is the Jew’s foundation in our world? Material necessity, private advantage. 
“Christianity sprang out of Judaism.  It has again withdrawn into Judaism.  The Christian from the outset was the theorizing Jew; the Jew is therefore the practical Christian and the practical Christian has become a Jew.  Christianity has only seemed to overcome real Judaism... Christianity is the sublime idea of Judaism.  Judaism is the common application of Christianity.   As soon as society succeeds in abolishing the empirical essence of Judaism, which is the huckster and the conditions that produce him, the Jew will become impossible, because his consciousness will no longer have a corresponding object.” ("On the Jewish Question," Selected Essays)  “Let us look at the real Jew of our time: not the Jew of the Sabbath, whom Bauer considers, but the Jew of everyday life.   What is the Jew's foundation in our world?  Material necessity, private advantage.  What is the object of the Jew's worship in this world?  Usury.  What is his world god?  Money.  Very well, then: emancipation from usury and money, that is, from practical, real Judaism, would constitute the emancipation of our time...”
“The Jew has already emancipated himself in the Jewish way: “the Jew who is, for example, merely tolerated in Vienna, determines with his money power the fate of the entire German Empire.  The Jew who is without rights in the smallest German state, decides the fate of Europe.  This is no isolated fact.  The Jew has emancipated himself in the Jewish fashion not only by acquiring money power but through money's having become (with him or without him) the world power and the Jewish spirit's having become the practical spirit of the Christian peoples.  The Jews have emancipated themselves to the extent that the Christians have become Jews.” (From a review by Marx of Bruno Bauer's The Capacity of Today's Jews and Christians to Become Free)  “Thus we find every tyrant backed by a Jew, as is every Pope by a Jesuit.  In truth, the cravings of oppressors would be hopeless, and the practicability of war out of the question, if there were not an army of Jesuits to smother thought and a handful of Jews to ransack pockets.” (New York Tribune, 1856; cited in National Review magazine, October 5, 1965)
Marx prophesizes that America will become a Jewish state, and will embrace the Jewish ideology of greed and alienation.

****"Religion is the opium (opiate) of the people" wrote Marx in his 1843 work “Contribution to Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right”.
Marquis de Sade's Juliette, 1797 Juliette explains to King Ferdinand: “This opium you feed your people, so that, drugged, they do not feel their hurts, inflicted by you.”
In 1798, Novalis wrote “Their so-called religion acts merely as an opiate: irritating, numbing, calming their pain out of weakness.”
Charles Kingsley, Canon of the Church of England, wrote this four years after Marx: “We have used the Bible as if it were a mere special constable's hand book, an opium dose for keeping beasts of burden patient while they were being overloaded, a mere book to keep the poor in order.”
Lenin, speaking of religion in Novaya Zhizn in 1905, clearly alluded to Marx's earlier comments: “Religion is one of the forms of spiritual oppression which everywhere weighs down heavily upon the masses of the people, over burdened by their perpetual work for others, by want and isolation. Impotence of the exploited classes in their struggle against the exploiters just as inevitably gives rise to the belief in a better life after death as impotence of the savage in his battle with nature gives rise to belief in gods, devils, miracles, and the like.  Those who toil and live in want all their lives are taught by religion to be submissive and patient while here on earth, and to take comfort in the hope of a heavenly reward.  But those who live by the labor of others are taught by religion to practice charity while on earth, thus offering them a very cheap way of justifying their entire existence as exploiters and selling them at a moderate price tickets to well-being in heaven.  Religion is opium for the people.  Religion is a sort of spiritual booze, in which the slaves of capital drown their human image, their demand for a life more or less worthy of man.”
[Religion has been used by governments and plutocrats through the years.  True Christianity, as Kingsley knew, is a militant faith, eager to bring justice to all.]
**** Summary of Socialism:
Socialism is an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, and a political philosophy advocating such a system.  "Social ownership" may refer to cooperative enterprises, common ownership, direct public ownership or autonomous state enterprises.   There are many varieties of socialism and they differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, the degree to which they rely on markets or planning, how management is to be organised within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism.  German National Socialism was and would have been against the majority of these systems, unlike modern Western monopolistic capitalism which is really coorporational socialism.
Types of Socialism:
Marxist communism refers to classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. In the classic Marxist definition (Pure communism), refers to a system that has achieved a superabundance of goods and services due to an increase in technological capability and advances in the productive forces and therefore has transcended socialism. This is a hypothetical stage of social and economic development.  The actual goal of communism has never been attained in practice.  The real idea behind it is to abolish all leadership, and govern with a commune.  That is, the people themselves make all decisions, and everyone contributing to the wellbeing of the state.  In practice, most governments that have claimed to be communist have been totalitarian dictatorships.
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology, officially based upon the theories of Jew Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Jew Vladimir Lenin, that promotes the development and creation of an international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party (Jews) presiding over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Stalinism refers to a style of government or political structure, rather than an ideology per se; during Jew Stalin's rule, Marxism-Leninism was proclaimed the official ideology of the state.  (half-Jew Stalin actually became more nationalist and was against international Jews.)  From 1917 to 1924, Vladimir Lenin, Jew Leon Trotsky and Stalin often appeared united, but their ideological differences never disappeared.  In his dispute with Trotsky, Stalin de-emphasised the role of workers in advanced capitalist countries.  For example, he postulated that the United States working class was a bourgeoisified labour aristocracy).  Stalin also polemicised against Trotsky on the role of peasants, as in China, whereas Trotsky was in favor of urban insurrection and over peasant-based guerrilla warfare.
Maoism: The class struggle continues throughout the entire socialist period, as a result of the fundamental antagonistic contradiction between capitalism and communism.  Even when the proletariat has seized state power through a socialist revolution, the potential remains for a bourgeoisie to restore capitalism.  (Suggests continual cleansing of leaders.)  Indeed, Mao famously stated that "the bourgeoisie [in a socialist country] is right inside the Communist Party itself", implying that corrupt Party officials would subvert socialism if not prevented.  Unlike the earlier forms of Marxism-Leninism in which the urban proletariat was seen as the main source of revolution, and the countryside was largely ignored, Mao focused on the peasantry as a revolutionary force which, he said, could be mobilized by a Communist Party with their knowledge and leadership.
Trotskyism argued for the establishment of a vanguard party.  He considered himself an advocate of orthodox Marxism.  His politics differed greatly from those of Stalin or Mao, most importantly in declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution" and arguing that democracy is essential to both socialism and communism.  (Our modern “Democracy” or Neo-conservative movement is actually Trotskyism.)
Council Communism is a current of Libertarian Marxism that emerged out of the November Revolution in the 1920s, characterized by its opposition to State Capitalism/State Socialism as well as its advocacy of Workers' Councils as the basis for Workers' Democracy.  Chief among the tenets of Council Communism is its opposition to the party vanguardism and democratic centralism of Leninist Ideologies and its contention that democratic workers' councils arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of working class organization and authority.  Council Communism also stands in contrast to Social Democracy through its formal rejection of both the reformism and Parliamentarism.
Others forms:Autonomism; Anarchism: Mutualism, Collectivist anarchism, Anarchist communism, Anarcho-syndicalism; Social democracy; Democratic socialism; Liberal socialism: Ethical socialism; Religious socialism: Christian socialism, Christian anarchism, Islamic socialism; Regional socialism: Arab socialism, Irish republican socialism; Eco-socialism: Green anarchism; Nationalist and ethnocentric socialism: Ba'athism, Kuomintang and Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang.-(wikipedia)  They left out German or European National Socialism and Fascism, perhaps because they are closer to Free-Market Capitalism then propaganda suggests.

The Russian Army helped stem these revolutions which angered the Jews further against Russia.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRE45sBoWg3DitljYoHEGAd6WTxwsYeTvDV1wL5JBKm6HtTMd_t7A 1848 Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (5/30, 1814 – 7/1, 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchism. 
"Marx is a Jew and is surrounded by a crowd of little, more or less intelligent, scheming, agile, speculating Jews, just as Jews are everywhere, commercial and banking agents, writers, politicians, correspondents for newspapers of all shades; in short, literary brokers, just as they are financial brokers, with one foot in the bank and the other in the socialist movement, and their arses sitting upon the German press.  They have grabbed hold of all newspapers, and you can imagine what a nauseating literature is the outcome of it.
Now this entire Jewish world, which constitutes an exploiting sect, a people of leeches, a voracious parasite, Marx feels an instinctive inclination and a great respect for the Rothschilds.  This may seem strange.  What could there be in common between communism and high finance? Ho ho! The communism of Marx seeks a strong state centralization, and where this exists there must inevitably exist a state central bank, and where this exists, there the parasitic Jewish nation, which speculates upon the labor of the people, will always find the means for its existence...
In reality, this would be for the proletariat a barrack regime, under which the workingmen and the working closely and intimately connected with one another, regardless not only of frontiers but of political differences as well - this Jewish world is today largely at the disposal of Marx or Rothschild.  I am sure that, on the one hand, the Rothschilds appreciate the merits of Marx, and that on the other hand, women, converted into a uniform mass, would rise, fall asleep, work and live at the beat of the drum; the privilege of ruling would be in the hands of the skilled and the learned, with a wide scope left for profitable crooked deals carried on by the Jews, who would be attracted by the enormous extension of the international speculations of the national banks... (Polémique contres les Juifs)
[This startling piece of prediction is particularly impressive to those who have observed the Soviet scene and notice its strange relationship with capitalist financiers - overwhelmingly Jewish - since the revolution.  The line runs from Olof Aschberg, self-described "Bolshevik banker" who ferried to Trotsky the huge sums raised for the revolution by financiers in Europe and America, to Armand Hammer in the 1970s, who has specialized in multimillion-dollar trade concessions with the now supposedly 'anti-Semitic' commissars.]
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSproudhonP.jpg Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1/15, 1809– 1/19, 1865) was a French politician, mutualist philosopher and socialist.  He was a member of the French Parliament, and he was the first person to call himself an "anarchist".  He is considered among the most influential theorists and organizers of anarchism.  After the events of 1848 he began to call himself a federalist.  In 1847 he considered publishing an article against the Jewish race, which he said he "hated".  The proposed article would have "called for the expulsion of the Jews from France...  The Jew is the enemy of the human race.  This race must be sent back to Asia, or exterminated.  H. Heine, A. Weil, and others are simply secret spies. Rothschild, Crémieux, Marx, Fould, evil choleric, envious, bitter men etc., etc., who hate us."   “The Jew is by temperament an anti-producer, neither a farmer nor an industrial nor even a true merchant. He is an intermediary, always fraudulent and parasitic, who operates, in trade as in philosophy, by means of falsification, counterfeiting, horse-dealing. He knows but the rise and fall of prices, the risk of transport, the incertitude of crops, the hazard of demand and supply. His policy in economics has always been entirely negative, entirely usurious; it is the evil principle, Satan, Ahriman, incarnated in the race of Sem.” (Césarisme et christianisme)  “The Jews, again the Jews, always the Jews! Under the Republic, just as under Louis-Philippe and under Louis XVI, we are at the mercy of the Jews!” (Representant A peuple, May 11, 1848)
In a December 26, 1847 diary entry, Proudhon says this: “Jews.  Write an article against this race that poisons everything by sticking its nose into everything without ever mixing with any other people. Demand its expulsion from France... Abolish synagogues and not admit them to any employment.  Finally, pursue the abolition of this religion.
It’s not without cause that the Christians called them deicides.  The Jew is the enemy of humankind. They must be sent back to Asia or exterminated.  By steel or by fire or by expulsion the Jew must disappear... H. Heine, A. Weil, and others are simply secret spies. Rothschild, Crémieux, Marx, Fould, evil choleric, envious, bitter men etc., etc., who hate us."
In his influential essay, "What Is Government?" Proudhon says this: “To be governed is to be watched, inspected, spied upon, directed, law-driven, numbered, regulated, enrolled, indoctrinated, preached at, controlled, checked, estimated, valued, censured, commanded, by creatures who have neither the right nor the wisdom nor the virtue to do so. To be governed is to be at every operation, at every transaction noted, registered, counted, taxed, stamped, measured, numbered, assessed, licensed, authorized, admonished, prevented, forbidden, reformed, corrected, punished.
It is, under pretext of public utility, and in the name of the general interest (that we are) drilled, fleeced, exploited, monopolized, extorted from, squeezed, hoaxed, robbed; then, at the slightest resistance, the first word of complaint, to be repressed, fined, vilified, harassed, hunted down, abused, clubbed, disarmed, bound, choked, imprisoned, judged, condemned, shot, deported, sacrificed, sold, betrayed; and to crown all, mocked, ridiculed, derided, outraged, dishonored.
That is government; that is its justice; that is its morality. 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (5/12 1828 – 4/9 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator.  He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, and was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones.  His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.  "But as to his doings, and jawings, and jewings, William brought me the news." (Ruskin, Rossetti ...)
http://edu.glogster.com/media/4/36/51/30/36513021.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQExDwccKaTycLNDYOPvdjdFT1i9KEXxSA7PQic01nGkDjrA_cWNw 1848  Elizabeth Cady Stanton (11/12, 1815 – 10/26, 1902) was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement.  Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.  “We found nothing grand in the history of the Jews nor in the morals inculcated in the Pentateuch. I know of no other books that so fully teach the subjection and degradation of woman.”-Elizabeth Cady Stanton
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRVHSuMIUjuFDzd2MoxRtxFuABkQ88p7gVhUFont_k3lk94Imfn The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.   News of the discovery brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.  Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea and half came overland.  Unlike other 49er’s, most Jews avoided the down-and-dirty work of mining.  So the Jews who went west, many of whom were already trained in business, became prodigious commercialists.  They seized the opportunity to establish reliable lines of supply to meet miners' demands for boots, clothing, hats, and equipment.  Some Jews worked as prospectors or engineers in mines, but most started supply businesses.  Levi Strauss (2/26, 1829 – 9/26, 1902) was a German-Jewish immigrant to the United States who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans.  His firm, Levi Strauss & Co., began in 1853 in San Francisco, California.
Without a Protestant hegemony and with little antisemitism, Jews and Jewish institutions flourished in the West.  Many Jews, having first lived in the eastern United States, were familiar with English and American customs.  Selling dry goods and clothing to miners and other new arrivals, most Jewish men became merchants, wholesalers, or clerks in San Francisco, Sacramento, or the numerous river and mining towns.  Jewish women, usually the wives or sisters of merchants, also owned shops and worked as milliners and teachers.  Frequently, merchants operated branches of their city stores in the foothill gold-mining camps or in the river supply towns under the management of relatives or friends whom they brought from Europe. Gold and Silver rushes elsewhere such as Alaska and Australia duplicated this Jewish merchant system.
The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial.  San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.  Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written, a governor and legislature chosen and California became a state in 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850.
http://www.horrorstew.com/images/poe002.jpg Edgar Allan Poe (1/19, 1809 – 10/7, 1849) was an American writer, poet, editor and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective-fiction genre.  He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. "[Edgar Allan] Poe's description of Roderick Usher, in 'The Fall of the House of the Usher' (1839), the last offspring of a highly inbred family, was visualized as degenerate and, therefore, as Jewish. Gilman cites as evidence Poe's description of Usher's "nose of a delicate Hebrew model."  "In complex ways," decides Gilman, "the siblings [in the story] were Jews for no other reason than their incest." [GILMAN, 1-31-98]
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGuiFX9mOC-Mii_hJlGNiYy4iE_dgCeIpUjlTK5qZhgFpFX_wySecond Wave of Jews to America - Failed European revolutionaries including many dominant German or Askenazic Jews emigrate to the US. This wave looks down on future wave.
****48er’s  - Many European Revolutionaries dominated by Jews enter the united States of America and begin agitation in the North against slavery and the South.  Rothschild money is spent in both North and South to split the united States of America into more manageable regions for Banksters Control.  Slavery is only pretext, although many Idealists also are involved.  Slavery in South continued after the War for Southern Independence by a system of Jim Crow and American serfdom.  Slavery exists in the North by Capitalists squeezing the blood, sweat and tears of the backbone of the country – the working class.  Is a country’s capital, money or the people’s labor?
The Pork on the Fork: The most common anti-Jewish schoolchild ditty after this Second Wave contained none of the usual stereotypes(all true): the Christ-killing Jew; the wandering Jew; the old-clothes Jew; the peddling Jew; the scheming Jew; the rich Jew; or the omnipotent Jew.  New York: “I had a piece of pork, I put it on a fork, And gave it to the curly-headed Jew.  Pork, Pork, Pork, Jew, Jew, Jew.” (1864)  Baltimore: “Take a piece of pork; stick it on a fork; And give it to the curly-headed Jew, Jew, Jew.” (c. 1867)  Cincinnati: “I took a piece of pork and stuck it on a fork, And gave it to the curly-headed Jew, Jew, Jew.” (1886)  Easton: “I had a piece of pork, I stuck it on a fork And I gave it to a Curly-headed Jew, Jew, Jew.” (n.d.)  London: “I had a bit of pork And stuck it on a fork, And I gave it to the von, von, Jew.” (1892)   Australia: “If I had a piece of pork; I'd stick it on a fork, And give it to a Jew boy, Jew. “(1846; 1848)  "Pork" represents the antithesis of "Jew."  It is "last taboo" after other dietary laws had fallen into disuse.  They insisted that pork was somehow unclean, and not fit for man.  The implication, at least to Christian ears, was that Jews still considered themselves separate and superior.  The fork, is a symbol of civilization, culture and refinement.  As such, the fork represents that society which Jews wanted to enter.  Only one source preserves a (muffled) response: “I had a piece of beef, I put it on a leaf, And gave it to the Irish Christian thief, Beef, Beef, Beef, Thief, Thief, Thief.” (1864)   Later, Jews became more brazen.  They questioned assimilation and insisted on multiculturalism. 
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR98aAqSqAXcqpIRvgdKfrOnuHcPMk0tn1rmK6blz00ce7mFuO7_Q Johann Wilhelm Meinhold (2/27, 1797 – 11/30, 1851) was a Pomeranian priest and author.   ~“In Vienna, the rich Jewish bankers, speculators, etc. now imitate the rich Needle all the details of luxury after.  Insonderheit the hunt for beautiful girls Their own (Jewish) girls and women they are too good to sacrifice them to the lust.  You protect them and do not go out on their seduction and degradation, they have them when in all afflictions, they will drop it and not looking so among the tribes, which seem determined to be their servants (ie Christians), the purest and untouched virgins.  The richest among them have the less wealthy like the Remains of their meal to come.  And if the entire Jewish plutocracy at the Innocence has saturated, then only their victims of poor Christians are left, and then they sink into the depths of the vilest prostitution.  The needle is connected with his vices remains of old erbter virtues that he is generous and kept the victims of his Lust a remnant of better feelings, but the Jew throws his victim and occurs it underfoot. -  And mainly as also in Vienna that the poorer Jews Should drive coupler trade, they also excel in it in Hamburg.  The obscene Books, engravings, etc., are sold by Jews, indeed one of the most notorious of these For the sales department should permit this Schandbuben the police as a spy have given away.  So Jews and Jews in the north to the south of Germany, the chief deceiver of our youth! "-Wilh. Meinhold, Sidonia von Bork, the monastery witch. Third Bd S. 210th Leipzig 1848 (google translate)


http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQWbNdYOKAuS9CQR6Xmzdm94ViKUtYiI9cwNYoc8lh8_q4VAPkl Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (4/20, 1808 – 1/9, 1873) was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire.  He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte.  Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, becoming dictator before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on December 2, 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.  He ruled as Emperor of the French until September 4, 1870.  He holds the unusual distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.
Napoleon III is primarily remembered for several military ventures, including the French participation in the Crimean War, the conquest of Senegal, the Second Opium War, the Cochinchina Campaign, the Second Italian War of Independence, the Franco-Mexican War, the Taiping Rebellion, the 1866 campaign against Korea, the Boshin War, and the Franco-Prussian War.  Domestically, Napoleon's reign was a major period of industrialization for the French economy.  He also oversaw a major renovation of Paris that created the outline of the modern city.  The Second French Empire was overthrown three days after Napoleon's disastrous surrender at the Battle of Sedan in 1870, which resulted in both the proclamation of the French Third Republic and the secession of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to the newly-formed German Empire.
Domestically, Napoleon was balanced between the conservatives and liberals, and year by year moved bit by bit toward the liberal element.  It was an era of prosperity and industrialization in France.  He appealed to members of both the business and working classes.  The center of Paris was renovated by clearing out slums, widening streets, and constructing parks according to Baron Haussmann's plan.  Working-class neighborhoods were moved to the outskirts of Paris, where factories utilized their labor.  Some of his main backers were Saint-Simonians, and these supporters described Napoleon III as the "socialist emperor." Saint-Simonians at this time founded a new type of banking institution, the Crédit Mobilier, which sold stock to the public and then used the money raised to invest in industrial enterprises in France.  This sparked a period of rapid economic development.
Napoleon sought to advance his belief in free trade, cheap credit, and the need to develop infrastructure as ways of ensuring progress and prosperity through government policy.  Napoleon, like Haussmann and Persigny, believed that the budget deficits that the state incurred due to its high contributions would be offset by subsequent high profits.  His regime has also been cited as one of the few in French history to make a concerted effort towards breaking down trade barriers. 
The Second French Empire was overthrown three days after Napoleon's disastrous surrender at the Battle of Sedan in 1870, which resulted in the proclamation of the French Third Republic and his exile in England, where he died in 1873.

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTWdhCoFupyVRSMRN26fTV7i6n3L9fJZgCLHHAzvE5YmY0EEEc6uA Frédéric François Chopin; (3/1, 1810 – 10/17, 1849), was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music.  As a composer in Paris, he was driven into rages by Jewish publishers, or publishers he imagined were behaving “like Jews”. These quotes are from two letters of 1839: “I did not think that Pleyel would play the Jew with me …  Get 500 for the ballade from Probst, and then take it to Schlesinger.  If I have got to deal with Jews, let it at least be Orthodox ones. Probst may swindle me even worse, for he’s a sparrow whose tail you can’t salt.  Schlesinger has always cheated me but he has made a lot out of me and won’t want to refuse another profit.  Be polite to him because the Jew likes to pass for somebody …  Good Lord, why must one have dealings with scoundrels!  Well, I prefer to do business with a real Jew …  I would rather sell my manuscripts for nothing as in the old days, than have to bow and scrape to such fools.  And I’d rather be humiliated by one Jew then three… Scoundrels, scoundrels.”
Horatio Alger, Jr. (January 13, 1834 – July 18, 1899) was a prolific American author, best known for his many formulaic juvenile novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of respectable middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty.  He initially wrote and published for adults, but a friendship with boys' author William Taylor Adams led him to writing for the young.  He published for years in Adams's Student and Schoolmate, a boys' magazine of moral writings.  His lifelong theme of "rags to respectability" had a profound impact on America in the Gilded Age.  His works gained even greater popularity following his death, but gradually lost reader interest in the 1920s.  Frequently, the archetypes of Miser and Pawnbroker have Jewish first names.  His books were first published from 1849 and posthumously until 1913.
Photo of Zachary Taylor  Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was President of the United States and an American military leader.   Taylor was the last President to hold slaves while in office, and the last Whig to win a presidential election.  Known as "Old Rough and Ready," Taylor had a forty-year military career in the United States Army, serving in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and the Second Seminole War. He achieved fame leading American troops to victory in the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican–American War.  As president, Taylor angered many by taking a moderate stance on the issue of slavery.  He urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, setting the stage for the Compromise of 1850.  Taylor died just 16 months into his term, the third shortest tenure of any President.  He may have been poisoned for obstructing House of Rothschild plans for the US Civil War.  Taylor was succeeded by his Vice President, Millard Fillmore.




1850         1850         1850         1850
 

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